Ideas of the future: the Caucasian refugees of France about state-building in the Caucasus (1920s-1930s)
The present research focuses upon social and political views of the North Caucasian refugees of France in the 1920s and 1930s. The question of the attitude towards Russia, to future form of government in Russia, and to the future of national regions of the former Russian Empire including the Caucasus was the main aspect of these views. The author shows in the paper that in general social and political views came down to two large directions within which subtle differences were observed: Either the Caucasus is a part of the Russian Empire, or it is irrespective of Russia. We found out that the Caucasian refugees actively defended the positions, held open discussions which came to an end with serious divergences in ethnic diasporas.
Adaptation potential of Czechs and Slovaks of the Northwest Caucasus in the Russian migratory paradigm of the second half of the 19th century
The paper discusses features of migration of Austro-Hungarian citizens to the Northwest Caucasus and analyzes the adaptation potential of Czechs and Slovaks in the Russian migratory paradigm of the second half of the 19th century. The author comes to a conclusion that degree of efficiency of adaptation of immigrants in the different ethnic society depended on the national and confessional policy pursued by tsarism, on economic support of the Austro-Hungarian government and on individual self-realization of migrants. Most of immigrants managed to show uncommon acclimatization creativity and to find the economic niche.
Zaretskaya M.G., Suetina N.M.
Genesis of views on category "legal relationship" in the general theoretical legal doctrine of the Soviet period
The paper is devoted to "legal relationship" as fundamental category of the Russian legal science. The authors examine various approaches to a research of legal relationships in works of jurists of the Soviet period of development of legal science. The publication explores the essence of legal relationships, their structure, the connection between legal relationships and other categories, such as the public relations and the rule of law.
The main lines of social, economic and political structures of Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1867)
In the paper, an analysis is made of basic elements of social, economic and political structures of Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1867). The objective of the paper is to identify features of social, economic and political systems of Japan during the period of Tokugawa which predetermined, unlike other states of the East, the different historical destiny to the people of "land of the rising sun".
The chief military adviser in the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (1979-1980)
The paper discloses details of selection of the candidate for a position of the Chief military adviser to the head of the government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in 1979 before input to Afghanistan of the limited contingent of the Soviet troops. For the first time in scientific literature the publication shows the role and significance of the Colonel General S.K. Magometov as the Chief military adviser of the government of Afghanistan in 1979-1980 whose activity was highly appreciated by the government of the USSR.
On the issue of interethnic relations between Poles and Belorussians in the Belastok region under the Nazi German (1941-1944)
Western Belorussia is a polyethnic region, where the conflict between the two main peoples - the Poles and Belorussians was lasting during the first half of the 20th century. The German-Fascist occupation created conditions for the development and aggravation of interethnic contradictions.
Landscape impact on formation of democratic institutes in the Adyghe mountain societies: statement of problem
This work describes so-called "democratic" societies of Circassia in the 18-19th centuries, features of their geographical localization, reasons of a territorial and demographic increase, and influence of a landscape on a socio-political situation in the Adyghe mountain societies. The paper explores forms of democratic institutes, distinctive features of the military organization of mountaineers connected with an involvement of free community members into military actions by land and by sea that, in turn, creates steady base for functioning of democratic institutes. General lines typical for most mountain societies of the Old World are noted: delay of processes of centralization, and existence of the democratic institutes similar to structures of antique policies.
Evolution of sociological approaches in medical profession researches. Biomedical paradigm vs individual approach
In contemporary sociology and sociology of medicine there are various approaches to definition of a profession of the contemporary doctor. Classical approach to definition of medical professions is based within a biomedical paradigm and covers ideas of a profession of the doctor from the point of view of professional ethics, high collective responsibility, unity and impartial approach to the patient. From the point of view of a biomedical paradigm, the profession of the doctor represents the isolated sort of human activity which is characterized by high collective responsibility, an emphasis on scientific research and development of collective approach to formation of professional identity in medicine. The medical profession, from the point of view of biomedical approach, is a profession which combines three main key components: a collectivity, impartiality and a scientific research orientation. However, recently individual approach to sociological research of professions in medicine has intensely been developed. The key element of the analysis in this case is the individuality of the doctor, in the context of daily practices and daily interaction.
Degtyarev A.K., Lubsky A.V., Voitenko V.P.
Value policy in the USA and Germany in the interethnic relations: possibilities of implementation of foreign experience in the Russian society
Insufficient efficiency of administrative model of national policy in the Russian society assumes transition to the new paradigm basics of the administrative practices in the sphere of the interethnic relations, including taking into account a possibility of implementation of foreign experience in value policy. The paper discloses the difficulties, opportunities and prospects of implementation of the USA and Germany experience in value policy in Russia. The conclusion is drawn that the value policy allows the Russian society to get rid of an administrative syndrome, to overcome limitation only of legal "mechanisms" of regulation of the interethnic relations and to pass to the communicative model of national policy.
Kuznetsova A.V., Petrulevich I.A.
Reinterpretation of the city text in aspect of the myth
The city text is regarded by a humane paradigm in various aspects which allow claiming that it is capable to describe language, onomastic, architectural, mental and sociocultural spaces. The chosen research vector dictates the address to any of the declared spaces, however, the ordinary citizen deals with a complex of the city texts operating with various semiotics systems. Semiotics codes demand sufficient competence for decoding city texts, including in mythologization coordinates. Semiosis of the city text is defined by two constitutive spheres - the city as space (topos) and the city as a name. The city text gets myth signs in duality of the attitude to the world. The intertextuality and an interdiscoursivity of the city text are demonstrated in its semantic structure and cultural codes thanks to which the individual reinterprets information, significant for him. Verbalization of the city text is carried out at various levels: the organization of city space is based on recognition and exarticulation of various objects of topos, and lingual cognitive level allows structuring and fixes the cognitive scheme of such spatial object. Images of streets and other architectural objects represent in this case "semantic" knots of the city text which, in particular, are represented by means of prepositions and adverbs in the characteristic of orientation in city space.
"Firm" and "fluid" identity types of young Kalmyks
This paper analyzes features of formation of "firm" and "fluid" identity types at young Kalmyks. The author shows that the mutually repeled / interpenetrating tendencies in formation of identity at young Kalmyks can be studied at the analysis of "spheres between" culture and society.
Fragments of methodological prerequisites to a research of the relations of power in sociology
The paper is concerned with the possibilities to assess efficiency of the relations of power on the basis of traditional and contemporary methodology of the analysis of their place in system of structure-forming signs. An attempt is made to explain transformational communication of the power and society in traditions and stereotypes of scientific knowledge. Options of complex application of methodology of social science, urgent for modern sociology, are considered in cause and effect dependences of formation and assessment of the person, society, and institute of the power.
Pitirim Aleksandrovich Sorokin about crisis of sensual culture of the western society
The paper focuses thematically on studying the rich creative heritage of the Russian-American sociologist - Pitirim Aleksandrovich Sorokin. The theory of crises in its annex to the social phenomena and processes is defined as the specific direction of research. General theoretical components of the theory of crises are disclosed, and structural and procedural characteristics of this phenomenon in P.A. Sorokin's works are shown. Specific manifestation of the crisis phenomena, their depth and destructive force, transition to accidents and a further way of sociocultural system to a new state are studied on the basis of material of large-scale theoretical constructions and evidential factual data in fundamental scientific works of P.A. Sorokin.
Ptuschenko E.B., Batmitova R.R.
Expediency of making use of advanced information and computer technologies in social work with children with disabilities
Information technologies have created new complex technical, technological, information and cultural reality in education. Use of these technologies allows children with disabilities to be successfully socialized in the modern world. This paper aims to carry out the state-of-the-art review of information technologies and effective methods of social work that are used in teaching children with disabilities. A number of the general and special technologies of training of disabled children for their social adaptation in information society are considered. The basic principles of distance learning are marked out. Its main feature is the differentiated training. Modern interactive information technologies of distance learning are presented. Their full openness and positive opportunities, with application of electronic information resources: books, textbooks, multimedia encyclopedias, education manuals, collections of papers, historical sources, etc. increase interest of pupils in the studied subject. These resources facilitate and accelerate work in training, help to direct training process more quickly and objectively. As a result it is inferred that information, computer, network and interactive technologies are capable to be for children with disabilities not only a source of dynamic digital information, but also the comfortable tutorial and knowledge.
Institutional changes in the Russian system of the higher education in the context of modernization
The paper discusses features of the institutional changes taking place in system of the higher education of the Russian Federation. According to the author, emergence of new educational practices and structures becomes one of sources of institutional changes in the higher education. The author defines the main tendencies in institutional changes in the higher education, and offers recommendations related to improvement of functioning of institute of education in modern conditions.
Role of the Internet in contemporary communicative space of the Russian youth: sociocultural aspect
The present paper analyzes the influence of the Internet on process of transformation of value orientations of modern youth. The author notes that the Internet space in the modern world becomes one of the most important agents of impact on system of values, as well as represents one of the major determinants changing also a lifestyle itself of the modern younger generation of citizens.
Khot Z.Z., Chistyakova O.A.
Possibilities of sociocultural approach to a research of migratory processes
The paper is concerned with the possibilities of application of sociocultural methodology to a research of migration and migratory processes. The points of view of the leading sociologists and culturologists on a problem of sociocultural integration of migrants which have the specifics are given. Advantages are emphasized of a sociocultural integrated approach in relation to economic models.
Concept of the land plot in the doctrine of national and foreign law
The paper is concerned with issues of a definition of a concept of the land plot in the Republic of Abkhazia, Russian Federation and some foreign countries. An attempt is undertaken to study category of the land plot, from a position of the theoretical analysis, in legislative acts of the Russian Federation, the English land legal system, in the republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Moldova. The importance of the land plots at regulation of questions of social economic, social political, land and property character is separately emphasized.
The legislation of the Russian Federation as means of carrying out fair elections in Russia
The paper discloses specifics of elections in the Russian Federation. On the basis of the Legislation of the Federal law "On the Main Guarantees of Electoral Rights and Rights for Participation in a Referendum of Citizens of the Russian Federation", the progressive provisions promoting elections in the atmosphere of freedom, honesty and justice are analyzed.
REVIEW over monographs of Vartumyan A.A. and Kornienko T.A. "Modernization political processes: civilization and national specifics" and "Political process in "not western" polities: the role of traditions and innovations"
The presented monographs of Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor A.A. Vartumyan and Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor T.A. Kornienko are logical continuation of previously published works and are implementation of the project within school of sciences of A.A. Vartumyan "Regional political process: interaction of federal, regional and municipal authorities in sociopolitical modernization of the region".
General Problems of Pedagogy
THE IMPACT OF CONTEMPORARY INFORMATION SOCIETY ON THE STUDENT’S PERSONALITY
This paper is devoted to analysis of works that discuss various phenomena of modern information society, including those that have a negative impact on the student's personality and on learning process. Also the publication examines a model which, to some extent, describes these phenomena. Basing on this model, we can understand some of the difficulties which appear in the learning process. This gives the original approach for the development of teaching methods in different areas.
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL IDENTITY OF FUTURE TEACHERS IN THE MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION
The paper reveals the actual problem of training future specialists - the development of the social identity of the future teacher in the conditions of the multicultural environment of the university. The author establishes an essential link between the level of development of ethnic identity and the social identity of future educators. The publication argues the idea of the national specificity of social identity, which manifests itself in motivation, career orientations, the character of the individual, as well as in evaluating career prospects, the value-pragmatic correspondence of the person of the future profession.
Petrosyan A.R., Steingard N.S., Goncharova U.Yu.
DEVELOPMENT DESIGN OF FACULTY’S CORPORATE CULTURE AT PEDAGOGICAL HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION
This paper examines the possibilities for the organization of design of faculty’s corporate culture formation at the pedagogical higher education institution. The corporate culture should be considered in three main aspects: as culture of faculty - the independent organization, as culture of professional pedagogical community and as culture of students and teachers - representatives of social groups. The main design mechanisms of the faculty’s corporate culture formation are diclosed: development on the basis of the available positive values and standards, counteraction to the available negative values and standards and introduction of new values and standards. The developed approach to building the process of the faculty’s corporate culture formation at pedagogical higher education institution on the basis of pedagogical traditions showed its efficiency during experimental work.
INDEPENDENT WORK AS MEANS OF VOCATIONAL PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE TEACHERS
The paper describes the activities for the organization of independent work of future teacher as means of vocational personal development. The author scientifically proves a way of building this process, including training in work with concepts, support in independent studying separate subjects of courses, making research activity of students more active, and use of the Internet resources. The independent work thus organized promotes transformation of the student from an object into a subject of educational activity, facilitating personal and vocational development.
EFFICIENCY ASSESSMENT OF MODEL OF FORMATION OF CIVIC CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE TEENAGERS PARTICIPATING IN VOLUNTARY LABOR CREWS
The paper deals with criteria and assessments of level of formation of civic consciousness in the teenagers who are taking part in voluntary labor crew "New generation" of school No. 11 in Maikop of the Republic of Adyghea. The analysis of experimental work was made with the detailed description of each level and the indicator corresponding to it.
Romanov D.V., Kamuz V.V., Maltseva O.G.
ON SPIRITUALITY AND INSPIRITUALITY
This work presents the topical problem review – the formation of the modern student’s personality. The authors disclose difficulties and contradictions of this process and evaluate the geopolitical challenges of the present exerting active and direct impact on the modern younger generation. "Painful points" of socialization of modern higher school youth are defined, namely: spirituality crisis, growth of a technocracism and pragmatism. The possible reasons of the happening social transformations and those shortcomings of educational policy which caused these transformations are specified. The problem of the conflict of "generational" subcultures is analyzed with detection of characterologic features of generation of "fathers" and generation of "children". Subject of the analysis for establishment of relationships of cause and effect of the studied problem was also the so-called "Dulles's plan for disintegration of the Soviet Union" perceived by many as a literary mystification, but which is the document, very urgent in relation to the mentioned perspective. Importance of the high moral foundations characteristic of the Russian national tradition is established. The thought is proved that exactly thanks to the created moral position the younger generation will be able to actively resist to destructive manipulative influences. Possible variants of overcoming a problem of inspirituality in modern generation of the Russian youth are also presented in this publication. Need of integrative approach to the solution of this task is noted.
Reutova L.P., Khakunova F.P.
PEDAGOGICAL GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN DEVELOPMENT OF UNIVERSAL EDUCATIONAL ACTIONS OF YOUNGER SCHOOL STUDENTS
The paper discloses the pedagogical guiding principles in development of universal educational actions of younger school students comprising definition of universal educational actions as system, its structure and essence, innovative technologies, use of resource educational opportunities of Federal State Educational Standards of the Primary General Education, and implementation of the development program of universal educational actions in practice of the primary general education. The publication argues in favor of theoretical approaches on the basis of which the universal educational actions of younger school students are being built, proves the understanding of the importance of an internal dismembering and differentiation of contents and structure of universal educational actions of younger school students for design of process of their development, and systemacity of this process, and describes criteria and their indicators in development of universal educational actions of younger school students.
Special Methods and Teaching Technologies
Dzhandar B.M., Tuova M.R.
TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE CONTACTING LANGUAGES INTERACTION IN A FOREIGN SPEECH TEACHING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE ADYGHE-RUSSIAN BILINGUALISM
The paper is devoted to the comparative analysis of lexical and grammatical levels of three contacting languages. Different language systems are the reason of the interference phenomena in mastering the coherent speech in Russian and English.
INFLUENCE OF INNOVATIVE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES ON FORMATION OF STUDENTS’ CREATIVITY
This research has been conducted concerning the problem solution of innovative technologies usage in the course of organizing the creative environment when teaching students. Creativity is considered to be an ability of uniting various elements of experience and knowledge into new forms. According to this it is postulated that contemporary university faculty members should not have a focus on teaching as only a process of transferring ready knowledge and accumulation of a certain informational content. Key parameters of creativity were taken into consideration. In this regard special attention is given to the organization of the pedagogical maintenance directed to make a creative environment at all stages of students’ professional training. Active usage of innovations and new information technologies leaves a considerable mark on the development not only of creativity and creative thinking, but also thinking in general.
Strizhakova N.E., Petkov V.A.
STYLE APPROACH IN STUDENTS’ LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
In the context of the tailored education, this paper scientifically proves and discloses the theoretical bases and didactic opportunities of style approach in learning a foreign language. The publication shows instrumental nature of style as the individual preferred system of operations of the trainee’s cognitive activity. The essence of style approach is defined. Implementation of style approach in teaching and learning a foreign language is caused by the contemporary educational purposes and three leading aspects of these purposes: pragmatical, cognitive and pedagogical. Use of provisions and principles of style approach in lessons of foreign language assumes improvement of efficiency of the individualized methods of training and self-education, without which high quality of ensuring process of mastering a foreign language with trainees is impossible.
INCREASE IN THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FORMATION OF THE FOREIGN SPEECH COMPETENCE IN THE BACHELORS OF THE “NATIVE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE” PROFESSIONAL DIRECTION USING NATIONALLY ORIENTED MATERIAL
The paper is devoted to one of the relevant problems of teaching methodology – the formation of foreign speech competence in bachelors of the“Native language and literature” professional direction. To form the reviewed competence a special methodology constructed with language interlayer links and Adyghe-Russian bilingualism conditions taken into account is needed. Authentic folk tales and legends about the Adyghes are an effective means of forming skills in text building and using them in real communication.
ARTISTIC-CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS BY MEANS OF CARPET WEAVING ACTIVITIES
One of the conditions for developing abilities in children is the dominance of active cognitive interest and the creative nature of educational and artistic activity. Decorative and applied art, in particular carpet weaving, aims at developing the artistic and creative abilities of schoolchildren, the artistic taste, the awakening of the interest in independent creativity, and mastering the basics of decorative and applied art. The testing of supplementary education programs for children with artistic and creative component shows that this component, which is included in the content of classes of children's associations of decorative and applied art and contributes to the development of artistic and creative abilities of students, makes it possible to stimulate the artistic and creative development of the personality of the pupil, and to activate his creative and artistic-cognitive activity.
Modern Problems of Psychology
MEDIATION AS THE INNOVATIVE DIRECTION IN WORK OF THE EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
This paper is devoted to one of the innovative areas of work with children in education – to school service of mediation which is demanded by time and has to become one of priority tasks in the field of modern school education. The publication reveals possibilities of mediation which allow providing protection of the rights of children and to create conditions for formation of favorable psychological climate in educational institution. The paper contains the convincing arguments confirming the importance of mediation as one of the innovative areas of work of future educational psychologist.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE INTERNET ADDICTION AS RELEVANT PROBLEM OF THE MODERN WORLD
This paper discusses social and psychological processes of Internet dependence. Special attention is paid to the attitude of teenagers and young people to Internet dependence. Symptoms and factors of the Internet addiction are examined.
CONTINUUM OF FEATURES OF THE BODY IMAGE BOUNDARY
This paper presents the results of cluster analysis, which allows identifying four options of body image boundary and influence on the perception of interpersonal relations. Options of interpretation of the concept "body image" are discussed. The signs that define the features of body image boundary are formulated on the basis of scientific data. Skin diseases are defined as markers of the distortion of ego boundary. There is no consideration of the continuum of the features of body image boundary in the literature. The results of cluster analysis are given by methods that allow assessing ontogenetic formation, actual content and expression through the ratio of ego boundary. These results were obtained with participation of 60 patients with skin allergy and 60 healthy individuals. The following four groups were identified: "blurred ego boundary," "ambivalent ego boundary," "overloaded ambivalent ego boundary," and "strong ego boundary."
Tarasova E.V., Cheremukhin A.D.
PROFESSIONALLY IMPORTANT QUALITIES OF THE PERSONALITY OF PSYCHOLOGISTS-CONSULTANTS AS PREDICTORS OF THE RESILIENCE OF A PROFESSIONAL
The relevance of this paper lies in the study of personality traits as predictors of the resilience of counseling psychologists. The phenomenon of "resilience" is considered. The data of the semi-structured interview and the questionnaire of R. Kettel are analyzed. Qualities of personality are considered depending on the age of specialists. Certain professionally important qualities of the personality of psychologists influence the development of individual ability to manage their resources for the purpose of professional well-being.
Tersakova A.A., Pluzhnikova E.A., Kostenko A.A.
PROBLEM OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEACHER’S PROFESSIONALISM IN THE SPHERE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSHIP
The paper discloses the main aspects of development of the teacher’s professionalism in the international relations. The authors show importance of this type of professionalism in educational activity in multiethnic regions as factor of flexible regulation of situations of mutual understanding, and prevention of emergence of a discomfort in relationship of representatives of various nationalities. Specific requirements have been revealed concerning knowledge, skills and abilities, making competence of the teacher in the sphere of the international relations, their level and quality. Psychological and pedagogical conditions of efficiency of the teacher’s professionalism formation in the sphere of the international relations are described.
Shinkarenko S.V., Avetisyan R.R., Abaeva R.R.
MOTIVATION AS A LEADING FACTOR OF EDUCATIONAL-PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF FUTURE DOCTOR
Motivation as a leading factor in the regulation of the activity of the individual, his behavior and affairs, is of exceptional interest for understanding the nature of human behavior. Moreover, no effective socio-pedagogical interaction with the student’s personality is possible without taking into account peculiarities of motivation. The motivation of educational and professional activity is an indicator of the success and quality of professional formation of a future specialist and is among the important personal characteristics. Educational and pedagogical environment of universities is constantly evolving. Innovative technologies related to conduction of classes, seminars, lectures, and improvement of educational programs are implemented during the learning process. All this, to one degree or another, has a direct impact on the formation of a specific motivated behavior during learning activities. Of particular interest are University students, in particular from Medical Academy, as future professionals of one of the most difficult and responsible professions - the medical profession. The North Ossetian State Medical Academy is a modern multi-level system of continuous training of specialists with higher medical and pharmaceutical education. The paper considers the issues of learning motivation, a comparative analysis of psychological diagnostics of motivational sphere of the students living in the region and foreign students, using Student's t-test for independent measurements.
Educational Space of Physical Training and Sports
Dzhirikova F.D., Khalamliev M.I.
EDUCATIONAL TOURISM IN STRUCTURE OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF THE BACHELOR OF TOURISM
The paper describes one of the aspects of a solution of the problem related to formation of competence of the bachelor of tourism. Educational tourism is considered as result of integration of education and tourism in educational activity of the student. The publication shows ways of formation of the professionally significant qualities of future expert necessary for successful development of professional competence. The offered approach of designing a stage-by-stage process of formation of competence of the professional in the sphere of the organization of tourist educational activity is a basis of effective technology for training of future bachelors in the field of tourism.
Esaulov M.N., Lomakina N.M., Abdulova L.L., Shokhina O.I., Dozhdev A.I.
THE FORMATION OF PSYCHOLOGY OF WINNERS IN YOUNG ATHLETES OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF SPORT
The paper considers the features of the formation of psychology of winners in young athletes as part of the superstructure above the psychological qualities of the individual. The author refers the winner`s psychology to the psychological preparation of athletes, indicating the main features and stages of its formation, gives examples from the different kinds of sport and discusses the necessity of quality psychological support of young athletes.
Klimenko A.A., Rusanov A.A.
APPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY OF ACTIVITY TO TRAINING PROCESS AT THE INITIAL STAGES OF JUDO TRAINING
The paper discusses the main problems and ways of applying the theory of activity to the judo training process during the initial training stages. Based on the analysis of theoretical approaches to the construction of the system of training athletes and the modern theory of activity, the concept of the formation of a spatially-semantic model of technical-tactical preparation is proposed, its basic directions and target orientation are determined.
BASIC PROVISIONS OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL CONCEPT OF SPORTS EDUCATION
The author, being guided by the sociocultural concept of health-forming education developed by him, proves the new pedagogical content of a sociocultural phenomenon "physical culture" and its components. Tasks and result of training and education in physical culture are specified. Also the category "individual physical culture" is introduced, which, without denying a biological component, actualizes a personal semantic component of a sociocultural phenomenon "physical culture". For the first time the paper proves that several means should be used in education in the field of physical culture (motive physical activity and the solution of vital situations). The theoretical-methodological judgments, stated by the author in this paper, can form the basis for design of essentially new sociocultural concept of pedagogy of physical culture, as well as have significant effect on the content of education in the field of physical culture.
Khalamliev M.I., Dzhirikova F.D., Dzhaubae Yu.A.v
TRAINING OF BACHELORS OF TOURISM FOR USE AS NATIONAL CULTURAL AND NATURAL RECREATIONAL CAPACITY OF THE REGION
The paper examines the features of the vocational training organization for bachelors of tourism to use potential opportunities of national cultural and natural recreational means and traditions of the region. The authors show the role of tourist education in development of regional economy and sociocultural sphere of the national republic. Content of the pedagogical technology designed by the authors is described, reflecting the stage-by-stage nature of vocational training of the bachelor of tourism. Organizational and pedagogical conditions of effective training of future bachelor of tourism are revealed and approved. Prospects of further researches of vocational training of the bachelor of tourism are designated.
Alentyeva M.A., Chitao L.R.
Cross-cultural communication as new level of language competence
The paper analyzes positions of the English as one of languages of the international communication during an era of a global bilingualism. Special attention is paid to interpenetration of cultural traditions and changes at the language level. At least, three new aspects in learning a foreign language are revealed as a result: communicative, culturological, and sociolinguistical. The culturological aspect has, as has been revealed, the increased value as involves studying culture of the country and the people through language. The task is set to use English in the appendix to foreign-language (from the point of view of this language) cultures. One of the major elements at the translation of the foreign-language text is formation of English-language designations for elements of the foreign-language cultures referred to as xenonyms. Xenonymic variability leads to the fact that in many cases two or more options of designation of the same elements of external cultures coexist. The translated text is defined as the data carrier which is reflecting not only subjective visions of the world by the author, but is bearing the impress perception of reality by the translator. It is established that the translated text is the text adapted to different existential environment and ambience. Recommendations are made about the translation of foreign-language texts. They can be used in selection of texts for the cognitive and developing purpose in that volume and ratio which will be the most expedient for achievement of language competence.
Some features of language space of Adyghe lullabies
Imperative and narrative lullabies of the Adyghes are examined to identify and describe the features of their language. Of scientific importance are the revealed language formulas, comparisons, stylistic figures, addresses with wishful thinking, and repetitions of language structure of various levels which are abundant in language of narrative and imperative lullabies. Cheering-soothing language units and verbs of the indicative and imperative moods perform soporific function. It is concluded that striking syntactic feature of the language of imperative lullabies is amplification, while that of narrative lullabies is epic vocative. The genre-stylistic, textual and narrative methods are used as the cornerstone of research. Theoretical and practical value lies in the possibility of using the results of research in courses on linguistics and folklore.
Reduplication in the Adyghe language and its specifics
The comparative analysis is made of the reduplicated words recorded in lexicographic dictionaries of the Adyghe language. The repetitions formed according to different word-formation models are extensively developed in the Adyghe language, but some questions do not receive the sufficient judgment. Thus, linguistic dictionaries do not specify all types of reduplication. The special research of reduplication as one of productive ways of form- and word formations in the Adyghe language is very relevant both at theoretical and practical levels since results of studying repetitions show that they promote forming of a clear thought in the course of communication, as well as give uniqueness and originality to language. They reflect such major properties of language system as a tendency to redundancy of information, and existence of the duplicating subsystems, acting as a tool for ensuring reliability of the message and completeness of expression of a thought. A number of such specific features of language, comprising synonymic and antonymic repetitions, are revealed.
System-forming signs of an Internet discourse and value picture of the world
This paper deals with social practices promoting expansion of discourse space of the Internet. Social and communication functions of the Internet are allocated. Definition is given and Internet communication development tendencies are noted, its specificity is described. Constitutive signs of the Internet discourse are considered and its system-forming signs are described, namely: participants of the Internet discourse, idea of a social mission, the purposes and the communicative strategy of the Internet discourse, genres, a chronotope and discursive formulas of the Internet discourse. The conclusion is drawn about relationship of the discursive practices of the Internet and value picture of the world.
Reduplication models of stem-composition in fiction texts of Kh.Ashinov
The paper discusses the reduplication as one of the most widespread ways in morphological word formation of the Adyghe language basing on fiction texts of Kh. Ashinov. Functioning of reduplication in the fiction text in the Adyghe linguistics is described for the first time. The analysis of the compound words formed by means of reduplication shows that the writer widely uses these units in the art creativity. A number of reduplications are created by the author that demonstrates that the writer possesses wealth of the Adyghe language and its means, and uses creative approach to their formation. As the analysis of the text of Kh.Ashinov’s work shows, the considered type of a morphological structure, namely the reduplication, is frequent (one per each one and a half pages of the text), and both entering couple of an element are capable to be represented by different parts of speech. Results of work can be used in course of Adyghe modern language at studying word formation, and at drawing up dictionaries of various types.
Dzhandar B.M., Loova A.D.
On a national originality of gender stereotype functioning in native speakers’ language consciousness (from material of the German and Adyghe cultures)
The paper explores gender stereotypes as one of the most important aspects of social and cultural life of society. The opposition «men’s» - «women’s» is fundamental to human culture, and there are numerous proofs to it originating in ancient philosophical ideas of the world. The purpose of this publication is studying an ethnic component of gender stereotypes in language consciousness of carriers of the German and Adyghe cultures. The comparative - typological method is used to identify and to analyze national cultural specifics of gender stereotypes in the German and Adyghe language consciousness. An attempt is undertaken for the first time to reveal gender stereotypes in language consciousness of carriers of the cultures under study. The general components and ethnic component of gender stereotypes are defined, as well as national and cultural specifics of language consciousness of Germans and Adyghes are detected that promotes accumulation of data on ethnocultural specifics of language consciousness of people of the world. Gender stereotypes in language consciousness of representatives of various ethnoses demonstrate the original cultural specifics which are displayed in cross-cultural communication. The successful solution of problems of optimization of communication requires studying national and cultural specifics of language consciousness, ethnic and gender stereotypes.
Kambachokov A.M., Khashkhozheva Z.T.
The problems of semantic and grammatical peculiarities of participle in the Kabardino-Circassian language
The work highlights the semantic and morphological features of participle that distinguish it from other verbal formations in the Kabardino-Circassian language. It regards the types of syntactic relations and connections that occur in participial phrases both as central and dependent components. The aim of the paper is to study some aspects of participle grammatical nature in the Kabardino-Circassian language. During the study we used descriptive, comparative, structural semantic methods and a method of contextual analysis. The conclusions of the work come down to the fact that the participle in the Kabardian-Circassian language, unlike the Indo-European languages, has quite important morphological categories (person, number, tense, versions, potentialities, causative, compatibility, transitivity / intransitivity), but at the same time limitations of these categories do not give grounds for attributing it to fully independent parts of speech. It is only a verbal formation, denoting an action additional to the main action expressed by a finite verb.
Kopot L.V., Shevatlokhova E.D., Arkhipova I.V.
On formation of the standard of speech in mass media
An analysis is made of communicative failures in mass media connected with violation of standards of the literary language from positions of ethical aspect. We used the observation method enabling finding the speech facts which appeared in mass media; the method of a system research including the synchronous analysis of collected material; and the comparison method making it possible to establish similarity and distinction of objects and phenomena of reality. Examples of mistakes which sounded in the speech of the famous Russian actors, politicians, public figures, and journalists, reviewed and qualified as communicative failures in the field of orthoepy, lexicon, morphology, and syntax, were explored as material of research. The reasons of destabilization of language norm were established and described. It is inferred that the anti-standard of speech is formed not by «bottoms», but the «tops» designed to create and propagandize the elite language personality, and that strengthening censorship and acceptance of preventive measures concerning promoting the Russian literary language are required. Novelty of factual material of this research, certainly, will promote increase in speech responsibility of speakers, as well as will allow carrying out systematic work in the field of language ecology. The practical value of this research lies in a possibility of use of the stated material in higher school lecture courses on the standard of speech, sociolinguistics, speech writing, and advertsing.
Kurbaitaeva A.A., Biryukova E.V.
The phenomenon of stylistic paradox in the editorial (from material of journalism and press style)
The paper provides information about analysis of the editorial in modern German newspapers with the aim to study the functioning of stylistic paradox in them. The authors give definitions for the notion “paradox” and consider typical features of the editorial as a genre of publicistic style. On the basis of this analysis the authors come to a conclusion that stylistic paradox exists in two groups in the editorials. The urgency of the research depends on interest of modern scientists to the phenomenon of stylistic paradox in modern German language. Due to lack of researches on stylistic paradox and because of necessity to determine its status in stylistics, its further study is needed. The scientific novelty of this work lies in that the phenomenon of stylistic paradox in modern German language is considered for the first time using the material of definite genre: the editorial. The theoretical significance of this research consists in a fact that the materials, obtained as a result of this research, help to enlarge and develop knowledge in modern stylistics, to enlarge the notion about paradox and its role in text understanding, and moreover, they help to solve problems of information decoding in mass media. The practical significance lies in an opportunity of using the results of research in theoretical courses on German stylistics in linguistic higher institutions.
Kubashicheva S.K., Chitao L.R.
Efficiency of the metaphorical nominations in semantic space of languages of different systems
The paper analyzes the metaphorical block of new lexicon comprising the nominations of all parts of speech. An integrated approach to material allowed the authors to present full metaphorical picture of the world in semantic space of languages of different systems. The importance of work is caused by a contribution to the general theory and scientific judgment of lexical-semantic spheres of language systems and metaphorical component of modern pictures of the world of the English and Russian languages. It is established that the common feature for the studied languages is preservation of the main system of models of metaphorical transfers. And within such extralinguistic parameters as the computerization and globalization, conceptual and language pictures of the world do not lose their national specifics. Results of this research can form base for further systematization of metaphorical systems, as well as stimulate further researches in this area.
Lebedeva L.A., Savrasova O.M.
Intercultural lacunas in the structure of concepts: the Russian concept CHUZHOI -FOREIGN and the Czech ÑIZÍ - FOREIGN
The paper performs a comparative analysis of cultural linguistic concepts in Russian and Czech languages to detect the intercultural lacunarity in conceptual and metaphorical structure of concepts. The matched concepts are explored through definition and also by contextual, etymological, phraseological and paremiological analyses. Findings of the explanatory dictionaries, dictionaries of proverbs, idioms and comparisons are interpreted. It is reasoned that the concepts under study occupy one of the important places in the Russian and Czech language picture of the world. It is inferred that cross-cultural lacunarity can be manifested at all structural levels of concepts (conceptual, descriptive, evaluative), but we need to say, that lacunas can be detected only at one level. The practical value of this material lies in a possibility of its application in lecture courses on a cross-cultural communication, linguistics and theory of language.
On the issue of a text ideologization estimation in a political discourse (as shown by American politicians’ speeches)
The paper deals with the approaches to definition of a concept «ideology», and its place in a contemporary political discourse. The author defines and analyzes the basic tenets of a ratio of society, discourse and social knowledge where a key role is played by ideologies which are considered as the systems organizing social knowledge and supporting self-reproduction of social formations. The purpose of this paper is to analyze, identify and systematize ideological markers of the political text representing ideologically marked concepts, actualizing in the text in the form of specific lexical units - ideologemes. An attempt is undertaken for the first time to develop, on the basis of these markers, the certain algorithm allowing determination of the ideologization rate of this or that text. This algorithm is constructed on the basis of the cognitive and semantic analysis of political ideologemes and statistical processing of the obtained data. The ideology is shown to have a direct bearing on social knowledge and manipulation with public consciousness by means of actualizing ideologically marked concepts in texts of public political speeches. The technique of determination of the ideologization rate of the political text is defined.
Implementation of a cluster concept of «hypocrisy» in discoursive space of policy
The paper examines the ethic moral cluster concept of «hypocrisy» through a prism of its objectivization in a political discourse. The ways of manifestation of hypocrisy in political communication revealed by the analysis of the considerable array of texts from national cases of the Russian and English languages are categorized. Scientific novelty is caused by the fact that the author shows the law of distribution of recurrent units, verbalizing hypocrisy in relation to the subject of hypocrisy: hypocrisy of the state / government; hypocrisy of policy and social and political system; hypocrisy of politicians / parties. The research is of practical importance because its results allow systematization of approaches to study and categorization of moral ethical concepts and can find application in practice of a research of linguocultural concepts.
Popova L.G., Kulakova Yu.N.
Lexical-semantic representation of thrift in ecological texts in the German and English languages
The paper analyzes lexical and semantic representation of thrift in texts of ecological topics within an ecological discourse, one of the new directions in young science of ecolinguistics which studies the most acute issues concerning language and ecology. Subjects of the analysis are the concepts reflecting thrift in the German and English languages: thrift, economy and die Sparsamkeit. The comparative analysis on the basis of media texts shows that the declared dictionary meanings of economy, rational use of resources correspond to the specified concepts. Special meaning was revealed for the English word economy denoting «gardening of economy». One of important social concepts is disclosed within studying an ecological discourse. Data obtained can be used as a training material within a course of cross-cultural communication, as well as will become a contribution to development of one of the modern directions in the field of linguistics - science of ecolinguistics the purpose of which is to study the language sphere of dwelling of the person and society by means of detection of the general laws, principles and rules both for ecology, and for development of language.
Ptuschenko E.B., Petrishin D.V.
Promising information technologies as tool of knowledge in linguistics
The paper deals with the features of use of modern information technologies in linguistics. An objective of this research is carrying out the state-of-the-art review of use of information technologies and resources of informatization of linguistic and literary knowledge. The key sources of professional information for the linguist are revealed. They are presented in the form of massifs (bases) of information in various Internet resources. A number of the general and special problems of informatization of linguistic and literary knowledge are considered. The following electronic educational and scientific resources in the form of Internet libraries are allocated: dictionaries, encyclopedias, databases, and archives. Their main feature is full openness and service use. Scientific novelty is defined by the fact that information in electronic databases is constantly updated and the material taken for a research was not exposed to such analysis earlier. The practical importance of this analytical review is that the considered information technologies and Internet resources can be used to accelerate and simplify training and scientific research of linguists. As a result, the conclusion is drawn that information technologies, and applied linguistics are capable to be for the linguist not only a source of dynamic digital information, but also directly object of a research as communication linguistic phenomenon.
Rus-Bryushinina I.-V., Sokur E.A., Kharrash N.I.
Prosodic component of the Russian prosaic and poetic speech
The topic of this paper reflects current problems in the sphere of speech communication. A research objective is to analyze problems related to the formation and improvement of the prosodic party of the speech. This purpose is implemented by means of the solution of the following tasks: definition of a role of a prosodic component of the speech in contemporary communication, and identification of ways how to improve this aspect of the speech. The importance of the conducted research is defined by a role which a prosodic component plays in the speech, as well as by need to develop a system of its improvement. Forms of practical realization of tempo and rhythm of educational texts at certain grade levels are a result of this research. Differentiation of the modes of work over tempo and rhythm, on the one hand, and features of work with the word, on the other hand, define a contribution that this research makes to linguistic science. The offered methodical exercises of the conducted research directed to form and improve this aspect of the speech are of a certain practical value.
Sasina S.A., Bricheva M.M.
Linguistic aspects of a naming (from material of English-language brands)
The process of creating brand names of trading companies is under consideration. The urgency of the naming problem is due to the intensity of this process at the moment. The object of the study is the English-language names of brands of large companies in Great Britain and the USA. The original function of the name is to identify and distinguish a name from a number of other similar names. The brand name must be different from others, it must be unique. The method of semantic analysis made it possible to find the most popular methods of formation of a brand name. As a result, it has been established that brands of companies are firmly part of our speech and expand the lexical system of modern English, which determines both the theoretical and practical significance of the process of creating names and brand names.
Hattian-Abkhazian-Adyghe Lexical Correspondencies (History and Modern Times)
The objective of the study is to reveal Hattian and Abkhazian-Adyghe lexical correspondences. With this aim in view we proceed from the premise that to establish the affinity of two or more languages, ancient as well as modern, it is possible to compare not only words but the root lexical morphemes given the space of renovation of the basic vocabulary and structural, phonological and grammatical differences in related languages depending on the external and internal factors of the language evolution. Hattian words or parts of words and their Abkhazian-Adyghe conformity are considered related if their graphic and the value taken from a Hattian bilingual match. At concurrence of wring and no transfer value a Hattian word or its components were restored through Abkhazian-Adyghe languages. Hattian words are given in Latin transliteration, their Abkhazian-Adyghe match – in the Cyrillic alphabet. The materials of the study were Hattian-Hittite bilingual texts. We have revealed that about a hundred Hattian one-syllable and two-syllable lexemes representing 14 semantic groups have matches in the Abkhazian-Adyghe languages, which excludes accidental coincidence and proves their origin from the same original language system. The linguistic evidence of the Abkhazian-Adyghe genetic relationship with Hattian, one of the most Ancient languages of Asia Minor, will make it possible to shed some light on the historic past of the peoples of the Caucasus. The results of the investigation may be useful for writing the history of the Abkhazian-Adyghe languages.
On correlation of words and phraseological units in the Adyghe language
Phraseological units of the Adyghe language and their correlation with words are analyzed. Views of some specialists on this problem are considered, the proving examples are given. Phraseological versions and word versions are mentioned. Scientific importance of this paper lies in the analysis of some features of functioning of phraseological units in the language and speech. To achieve a goal, the semantic analysis and calculation are used. Results of this research expand and deepen the idea of phraseological units of the Adyghe language, their place in system of language and features of functioning in the speech, and provide a methodological basis for their further studying in the Adyghe language. Their practical importance lies in obtaining knowledge on their distribution in the language and speech and in drawing up phraseological dictionaries.
Features of sovietism functioning in works of the writer-bilingual
Using works of the bilingual writer Ramazan Trakho as an example, the author of this paper examines features of sovietisms depending on their classification, since, being a reflection of the peculiarities of historical and cultural development of the country, mentality and worldview of the people, sovietisms create certain difficulties in their use and translation into different languages. This paper aims to identify the specifics of sovietisms in emigrant prose of the bilingual writer as a linguocultural phenomenon. The research of linguoculturological potential of background knowledge of sovietisms in emigrant prose which contains regional geographic information in its symbolic view is for the first time conducted. The concepts developed within cognitive linguistics and lingual cultural study became a methodological basis. Use of the complex technique of the analysis of lexical material, including a descriptive method, a method of the component analysis and the functional-conceptual analysis of various theme groups of Russian lexicon makes it possible to claim that lexical layer of sovietisms represents a certain picture of the world, a special part of Russian dictionary structure, reflecting realities of life of the Soviet people. Study of texts of the bilingual writer assumes consideration of the national specific information characteristic of a certain nation.
Peripheral semantic microfields in the metaphorical field of «Travel across Kamchatka» of I. Selvinsky
For the first time in a domestic metaphorology, examining «A travel across Kamchatka» of I. Selvinsky from the point of view of semantic microfields, we at first carried out differentiation of these objects into core and peripheral microfields. The second of the called clusters, namely: peripheral semantic microfields, is subject to disclosure in this paper. Similar detail of the data, distribution of microfields, undoubtedly, are scientifically important when studying the theory of the metaphorical field. Practical value of this work lies in a possibility of application of the shown scheme at identification of similar semantic-metaphorical structures in art texts of other authors. Our approach to studying the metaphorical field of the work is based on researches of G.N. Sklyarevskaya who subdivided all metaphors of poetic diction into six semantic categories. In our work we went slightly further: our method of research of the metaphorical field of I.Selvinsky assumes correlation of the above-stated categories with core or peripheral microfields of the poetic work, its integral metaphorical field. The main outcome of this paper is definition and the description of peripheral semantic microfields in the poetic work of I. Selvinsky. The complex of semantic spheres which is proved to be associated with peripheral microfields in the paper is presented in conclusions of this work that makes a certain contribution to a metaphorology of poetic diction as branch of domestic linguistic science. This research and its results can be useful to similar works on a metaphorology and stylistics of art texts.
Naptsok B.R., Meretukova M.M.
Genre invariants and originality of poetics of Christmas prose (from material of the Russian literature of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century)
This paper explores specific features of genre invariants of Russian Christmas stories, an ideological and art originality of case texts of the Russian Christmas prose. On the basis of a comparative typological method, synchronic and diachronic approaches, the fact is established that the Christmas genre in the Russian prose received the specific interpretations caused by an originality of national Christian culture and mentality. Relevance of work is related to poor study of a problem of genre modifications and art specifics of the Russian Christmas story. Main are conclusions that various genre and art invariants are identified in the majority of Christmas works of the Russian literature of the 19th century. These invariants are based on specific national perception of Christmas in Russia, features of national consciousness and mentality in which a special role is played by Christian and Easter archetypes.
Panesh U.M., Sokolova G.V., Sosnovsky V.T.
On typological features of the Adyghe lyrical poetry of the beginning of the 1960s – the 1980s
Typological features of formation and development of the Adyghe lyrical poetry of the 1960s – the 1980s, topics originality, evolution of the conflict and genre forms of poetry of M. Paranuk, A. Evtykh, M.S. Yakhutl, K. Zhane, I. Mashbash, Kh. Beretar, K. Nalbiy, and N. Bagov are investigated. The authors define ideological, thematic, structural and style features of works, which are determined, on the one hand, by the principles of socialist realism and in due time by the theory of absence of conflict. Lines of a new stage of literary process of the 1960s – the 1980s are marked – special attention is paid to a phenomenon of the certain person, and to the idea about self-valuable importance of the human person which in turn lead to revaluation of esthetic values. Use of historical-literary, comparative and typological methods makes it possible to formulate conclusions that the Adyghe poetry passes the way of release from the social order, solemnity, ideological stamps, and publicistic verbosity. Expansion of poetic range at display of the different parties of reality, problematical character strengthening, a research of difficult philosophical and ethical questions, hard work of poetic feeling become a reality. The research makes a contribution to the solution of problems of evolution of various genres of poetry of national literature, and results can be applied at a research of history of literature, working out of higher school textbooks and education manuals.
Panesh U.M., Akhidzhakova M.P., Urakova F.K.
On genre, structural and style features of historical and historical-revolutionary prose in the Adyghe literature of the 1960 – 1980s
This paper explores features of formation and development of the Adyghe historical and historical-revolutionary prose of the 1960-1980s. The authors formulate lines of a new stage of domestic art of the word which exerted impact on prose evolution of the Adyghe new written literature – strengthening the concept of the personality and the movement to artistic, dimensional, concentrated, problematic analytical display. An analysis is made of the topics originality, evolution of the conflict and genre forms of works of T. Kerashev, A. Evtykh, Yu. Tlyusten, D. Kostanov, and I. Mashbash. Ideological, thematic, structural and style features of works are defined, on the one hand, by lines of the traditional, descriptive, panoramic novel, and, on the other hand, by new tendencies: strengthening the concept of the personality, use of diverse poetic forms and application of the psychological analysis. Reliance on historical-literary, comparative and typological methods allows formulating conclusions that the prose on a historical-revolutionary and historical topics passed a complicated way from a descriptiveness and eventivity to art problematical character, and intensive searches for unknown earlier genre modifications. The research makes a contribution to the solution of problems of formation and development of various genres of prose in national literature. Practical value lies in a possibility of use of results at a research of history of literature, creation of higher school textbooks and education manuals.
Stepanova T.M., Autleva F.A.
The folklore principle in comprehension of an antithesis of «poetry and the truth» in «The Legend of Sleepy Hollow» by W. Irving
This research deals with features of art implementation of an antithesis of poetry and the truth, dream and reality on the basis of the material taken from “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow». The aim of the present research is to provide an analysis of the methods of figurative and semantic disclosure of archetypes and mythemes, imitation of documentary and publicistic style and simultaneous prevalence in structure of the text of oral tradition, colloquial lexicon, features of lyrical-romantic, and partly an idyllic chronotope of the work. The authors explore the facts of reconsideration of mystical-allegorical manifestation of archaic folklore and ethnographic representations, traditions and customs; and irony as latent form of ridiculing human superstitions, primitive nature of mass consciousness. The conclusion is drawn that the antithesis of the rational and irrational is relevant for the concept of W. Irving on preservation of original cultural heritage, traditional national culture as dichotomy of two considerable tendencies – globalization and antiglobal studies.
Chekalov P.K., Inarkaeva S.I.
Historical - philosophical context of personality depiction in the story of M.E. Beksultanov «The road returning to top”
This paper examines the specificity of the historical-philosophical context in the story of the modern Chechen writer M.E. Beksultanov “The road returning to top”. The study uses the comparative-historical and functional methods. Based on fiction text and documents of the era, the broad contours of the real situation in Chechnya in the 1917s - 1920s are recreated. The authors show deep contradictions, and the obvious stratification of national society, involved in the revolution and in the civil war. The story depicts historical characters that have had direct relevance to landmark decisions in the life of the Chechen people, underlining their tragic outcome. The image of Tapa Chermoev, large petroindustrialist, a prominent political figure of the early twentieth century is presented at a close-up. Detailed analysis is made of his speech at a meeting of the Chechen poor people in one of the villages. Defeated Chermoev is treated as defeat of the entire nation, which did not dope out all the tragic consequences of the new Government to be installed. An episode of leaving of Chermoev from a scene has the generalized symbolic character, because together with it the tercentenary era of government of Romanov descends from a historical proscenium, and national suburbs of Russia lose old tenor of life, key moral principles on which the world order in society was built.
Chotchaeva M.Yu., Sosnovsky V.T.
Postmodernism in culture and literature of the present
The paper examines the issues of emergence and formation of postmodernism and its literary form, the essence of postmodern outlook and specifics of postmodern esthetics demonstrating the disappointment in ideals and values of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment with their belief in progress, creativity of reason, and infinity of human opportunities. For the first time it is defined that typological line for national invariants of postmodernism is the identification with an era of the «tired», «entropic» culture noted for eschatological moods, esthetic mutations, diffusion of big styles, and eclectic mixture of art languages. The comparative analysis of cultures of a modernist style and postmodern is carried out. It is noted that avant-garde attitude to novelty in postmodernism is resisted by the aspiration to include in the modern art the integrated experience of world culture by its ironic citing. At the same time a reflection concerning the modernist concept of the world as chaos develops into experience of game development of this chaos, turning it into the habitat of the modern person. Fundamental characteristics of the postmodern text are identified. It is inferred that combining within one work of the styles, figurative motives and techniques borrowed from stores of various eras, regions and subcultures, as well as the «two-targeting» of literature based on an intertextuality became specific feature of postmodernism.
The principles of the historical narration in the Russian tragedies of the 18th century
The material presented in this paper is designed to consider features and dynamics of formation of a genre of the tragedy on historical plots in the Russian classicism of the 18th century. In the main lines the model of this genre was created only at the end of this period. Echoes of complicated formation of a way and basic theoretical foundations of the tragedy had art and esthetic consequences in the first quarter of the 19th century. This work is dictated by the aspiration to present in more detail fundamental stages of relationship of the Russian tragedy and the Russian history, muster of various theories and literary practice, and to substantiate them, proceeding from a paradigm of the general development of new national literature. The conceptual structure of the considered model of a genre was in direct dependence on questions of originality of the Russian classicism and the principles of its formation. In turn, it is obvious that the place of national history in this process was the mainstream. The choice of a subject of this paper is also explained by this. Problems of chronology and periodization are solved by the author according to the developed tradition: in process of emergence of works in the press. As a result not only the tableau vivant of history of classicism is recreated, but also the genre space of the tragedy is modelled as process, as a bosom in which the art and historical thinking of the 18th century grew ripe. And that it is even more important: dialogue of history and present.
Evolution of the concept «technology» in mass communication researches
The concept «technology» in researches of mass communications is examined to provide an analysis of the object and to identify the main stages of its evolution and modifications. On the basis of methods of the analysis and comparison of works of the Russian and foreign scientists, similarities and the main distinctions to definition of «technics» are identified. Transformation of the term and its use in such concepts as PR-technology, Internet technology, web technology, and information technology make relevance of this work. Thus, the term «technology» from the initial definition «craft» separated from the concept «technics» and began to be used in information space as the tool or a method for achievement of definite purposes.
Study of Arts
The genre of imagination in works of the Ossetian composer A. Makoev
This paper explores the piece of music of the Ossetian composer A.V. Makoev «Fantasy» (for two pianos) which is especially attractive to performers and listeners for selection, expansion and improvement of means of expression, and enrichment of emotional and figurative content of the musical material based on national music. The analysis of creativity of A. Makoev gives an idea of synthesis of composer art with folk musical art which found bright reflection in the work of the composer, and allows saying that a support on folklore, relationship and interaction with it is the ontologic line of creativity not only of A. Makoev, but also of many contemporary composers. The wide panorama covering the whole range of interaction and interferences of genres and forms of folk music of the North Caucasus with professional works of composers can attract interest not only of musicologists, but of musicians-teachers who address in the professional activity the best samples of musical literature of various genres and styles.
Musical remarques as a means for thematic development of sheet music text, its pragmatic interpretation
The article considers the system of musical remarques from the perspective of their functions in sheet music. The central issue in understanding the text of sheet music is the knowledge of musical remarques. Effectiveness of text reading depends primarily on identification of the remarque, and understanding the whole musical text through it. An array of musical remarques introduced into musical practice hasn’t been the subject of system analysis so far. The interpretations of the meanings of contextual-stylistic senses peculiar to musical remarks, different expressive and speech (performance) means of musical intonation, leading to stylistic generalizations of their essence, require understanding. The choice of remarques by composers differs by qualitative specificity and artistic certainty. We paid special attention to the concept of “internal form”, which is attached to different levels of understanding, since the aspiration to clarify the «internal form» of musical remarques is universal process of synthesis through the analysis, understanding the whole through analysis of its components.
Hubert E. Blum
The microbiome: key player in human health and disease. Review article
Until recently, human microbiology was based on the identification of single microbes, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses, frequently isolated from patients with acute or chronic infections. Novel culture-independent molecular biochemical analyses (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) allow today to detect and classify the diverse microorganisms in a given ecosystem (microbiota), such as the gastrointestinaltract, the skin, the airway system, the urogenital tract and others, and to assess all genomes in these ecosystems (microbiome) as well as their gene products. These analyses revealed that each individual has its own microbiota that plays a role in health and dis-ease. In addition, they greatly contributed to the recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. It is to be expected that these new insights will translate into diagnostic, therapeutic and pre-ventive measures in the context of personalized/precision medicine.
Shakhanova A.V., Chelyshkova T.V.
Features of the development of somatotropic function of the pituitary gland and the adrenal cortex (cortisol) in boys aged 8–17 years
In order to find the functional reserve of pituitary gland and, to a certain degree, growth capabilities of the body, we made a comparative assessment of somatotropin dynamics in blood both in the state of relative rest and under various testing loads. For deepening the developed ideas of hormonal regulation of growth in the course of puberty, the simultaneous examination was conducted to study the response of pituitary gland (with respect to somatotropin) and adrenal cortex (with respect to cortisol) under physical load with PWC170 power and under the maximum load with the capacity increasing on a step by step basis (load was applied down to the limit by means of bicycle ergometer). Quantitative definition of somatotropin (STG) and cortisol in plasma of blood was carried out by a radioimmunoassay technique with use of standard sets of CEA-IRE-SORIN (France). Results of research show that the activity of somatotropic function of the pituitary gland increases under the physical load with PWC170 power. Pituitary gland response (with respect to somatotropin) in the 45th minute is more significant than response in the 15th minute after the load. Under the same load conditions, concentration of cortisol in the 15th minute decreases on average by 1,4 times (in comparison with initial level), and in 45 minutes comes back to initial level. In each specific case, the trend of re-sponse (increase or decrease), incremental value of somatotropin and cortisol, as well as the rate of response were sub-ject to the value of the initial level of pituitary gland and adrenal cortex activity. Two physiologically equivalent types of response of pituitary gland (with respect to somatotropin) and adrenal cortex (with respect to cortisol) were ob-served – increase (with relatively low initial level) and decrease (with relatively high initial level) of the concentration of hormone in blood. In comparison with the adrenal cortex (with respect to cortisol) the response of pituitary gland (with respect to somatotropin) is more long-term and stable, however the adrenal cortex responses quicker to the load. This shows a cortisol role in fast mobilization of adaptive opportunities of a body under the impact of physical activi-ties. Under the influence of physical load of higher power during the work on the bicycle ergometer somatotropin con-centration reaches its maximum value immediately after the load and remains at such level until the 45th minute. Corti-sol concentration decreases immediately after the load and in 15 minutes significantly increases and remains at stable level until the 45th minute.
Smolkov I.V., Shumilov D.S., Tuguz A.R., Kushu L.T., Muzhenya D.V., Ashkanova T.M., Tatarkova E.A.
Gene polymorphisms of proinflammatory cytokines associated with ischemic stroke
Gene polymorphisms of IL-17A (G197A, rs2275913), IL-1 (T511C, rs16944), IL-4 (C589T, rs2243250), TNF-α (G308A, rs1800629) cytokines are investigated in ethnic groups of the Adyghes (n=56) and Russians (n=53) by SNP method (single nucleotide polymorphism) in 109 samples of genomic DNA of donors (n=55) and sick (n=54) with an ischemic stroke of a brain – a complication of peripheral atherosclerosis. Allelic gene variants of the main pro-inflammatory IL-17A (G197A), IL-1 (T511C), TNF-α (G308A) cytokines are authentically (Ð<<0.05) associated with risk of development of an ischemic stroke in inhabitants of the Republic of Adyghea.
Tolstikova T.N., Beskrovnaya A.Yu., Chernyavskaya I.V., Ednich E.M.
Wood introduced species in the Herbarium of the Adyghe State University. Catalog of the Herbarium of May (part II)
The paper describes the catalog of the wood plants-introduced species which are stored in the Herbarium fund of the Adyghe State University. Herbarium material was collected by the staff of Department of Botany and Botanical Garden, as well as by students of Faculty of Natural Sciences in tree nurseries and botanical gardens of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, Krasnodar, Rostov-on-Don, Maykop, in green zones of the cities of the Russian Federation, Abkhazia, Georgia, Turkmenia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, etc.
Formation and evolution of auls in the contemporary territory of the Republic of Adyghea
The paper examines the contemporary network of auls in the territory of the Republic of Adyghea in its structural and spatial evolution. Time and the causes of emergence of auls, their topographical situation, and planning forms are determined. Changes in network and populousness of auls are calculated and systematized according to the results of population censuses.
Shaov M.T., Pshikova O.V., Zhemukhova D.A.
Dynamics of the content of CO2 and SaO2 in the human blood under the influence of neuroimpriting technologies
The current stage of development of mankind is associated with an increase in the number of stressful damaging factors affecting the human body. Negative influence of exoecology entails the emergence and development in the body of a large number of pathological processes of various etiologies, leading to death. In this regard, the problem of search for protector technologies has become very urgent. This paper offers a non-invasive, naturopathic method of enhancing the body's adaptive potential by controlling the concentration of CO2 and SaO2 in human blood. The obtained results of researches testify to the effective adaptogenic effect of neuroimpriting-technology “Neuroton-4”.
Pshikanokova N.I., Pshikanokova N.D.
Monitoring technique of working out the strategy of the region development
The paper shows the results of research carried out by the authors on monitoring forms of an algorithm elaboration for the region development. Need is substantiated to optimize a system of monitoring for the social and economic development of problematic regions of Russia. The aggregated universal indicators of capacity of the region are considered as a major factor of increasing efficiency of a monitoring technique.
Kagazezheva N.Kh., Kolomiytseva N.S.
The analysis of factors influencing the state of school students’ health in the Republic of Adyghea
The analysis is made of major factors of risk, such as smoking, a hypodynamia and obesity, influencing health and life expectancy of the population not only in Adyghea and in Russia, but also throughout the world. The authors analyzed the main stages of antidrug education of school students. The law in development of the exogenous constitutional obesity is considered that is confirmed with mass epidemiological researches in various regions of Russia. Features of somatic development in children of school age in the course of training at schools of the Republic of Adyghea are analyzed. Timely familiarizing of children with sport prevents development of obesity, forms movement skills, the need for physical activities. At the same time the authors revealed a contradiction: active sports activities do not exclude a possibility of formation at school students of negative habits, in particular, smoking. Therefore, formation of a healthy lifestyle of modern youth is a complex challenge which demands further researches.
Algebraic orientation of sets (ordering sets). III. Integral with respect to a projection
Here we give bases of the theory of integration with respect to a projection on measurable partially simplex sets in R^n , generalizing the theory of integration on the focused varieties. Key properties of integral with respect to a projection are studied (definition continuity, integrability criterion with respect to a projection for limited functions, countable additivity, etc.).
NC10 -manifolds of class R3
In this paper we obtain the identity of the Riemannian curvature of almost contact metric manifolds of class NC10, called the third additional curvature identity of the NC10-manifold. On its basis, the class NC10-manifolds is distinguished and a local structure of the distinguished class NC10-manifolds is obtained.
On some properties of total and vector hyper frequencies of two-dimensional differential system solutions
The paper shows that total hyper frequencies considered as functionals on a set of solutions to linear homogeneous two-dimensional differential systems with continuous coefficients limited on a semiaxis are not residual (i.e. they can change with changing solution on a final interval). Besides, an example is given of two-dimensional differential system for some solution of which total and vector hyper frequencies do not coincide.
Rustanov A.R., Kharitonova S.V., Kazakova O.N.
NC10-manifolds of class R4
In this paper we obtain the fourth and fifth identities of the Riemannian curvature of almost contact metric manifolds of the class NC10 On their basis, the classes NC10-manifolds are distinguished and local structures of the distinguished classes NC10-manifolds are obtained. The structure of the tensor Ô-holomorphic sectional curvature NC10-manifold is obtained and the properties of this tensor are studied.
Features of obtaining information on parameters of keystroke dynamics
The paper describes the main hardware which is used in the course of obtaining information on parameters of keystroke dynamics, their features, and basic functions which can be derived in the course of obtaining information on keystroke dynamics.
Vlasenko À.V., Dzoban P.I.
Vulnerability analysis and simulation of “https” data traffic attacks
In the modern information world, guaranty of confidential data transmission in the network is the use of the “https” protocol. Indeed, in the year of 2017, 75% of the web resources of the domain zone of the Russian Federation and the CIS countries use encryption of the “client-server” dialog. This paper is aimed at demonstrating possible outcomes of the attacks of malefactors to formalize conclusions and use them at creation of procedures of transfer, processing and storage of data in network for protection from payment of taxes and fees.
Tsybulko A.M., Artamonov A.M., Efremov A.A.
Calculation of a profile of a side trunk for the well of the Koshekhabl field
The paper discusses the selection and calculation of profile parameters of a side trunk for the well of the Koshekhabl field. Recommendations are given for reducing the radius of curvature of the side trunk.
Vlasenko À.V., Dzoban P.I., Zhuk R.V.
Protection of personal data when authorizing a user in distributed information systems based on Web-technologies
The paper considers the problem of asset identification when organizing the protection of information systems built on the basis of Web technologies. Based on the statistical data on attacks on the input data of users on the network, a description of the algorithm for identifying phishing Web sites/resources implemented in the algorithm for pre-authorization verification was proposed. This algorithm is a preventive measure, implemented through a heuristic approach and is a real-life add-on of a Web browser in the form of a plug-in. Thus, before entering any data in the browser window, the user first becomes convinced of the legitimacy of the Web resource.
Technologies and algorithms of information security
The paper explores methods of protection of information systems against unauthorized access. Classification of encryption algorithms used for data protection is given. Protection methods are examined using operating systems of different generations and operating systems in the software as an example. Special attention is paid to information security and data protection in computer networks, relevant at the present stage of development of information tech-nologies.
Aliev M.V., Alieva M.F., Egorov V.V.
Internet application for placing and analyzing the effectiveness of advertisements in the network
In this paper, the authors examine various aspects of advertising in the Internet. The analysis of ways of placing advertisements is offered: contextual, banner and media. Also methods of advertising promotion in a network are proposed. The logical structure of the system, which allows choosing the methods of advertising on different services, is considered. In conclusion, the statistics of the effectiveness of the placed advertising companies are shown.