Pages of biography of diplomat V.N. Gadzhemukov
The article is devoted to the fate of the first Adyghe diplomat-orientalist V.N. Gadzhemukov, who worked in the Ottoman Empire before 1917. After the revolution, Gadzhemukov with his family came out to France. This article is the first work about V.N. Gadzhemukov, based on interviews with descendants (Paris, France). The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Gadzhemukov family. At the age of eleven, his father was given as an amanate to the Black Sea Cossack army. This determined his own fate and the fate of his children (7 people). This work discusses the main stages of V.N. Gadzhemukov’s diplomatic career until 1917. The article is study of the life of V.N. Gadzhemukov in 1917-1920 (Caucasus), in 1920-1922 (Constantinople, Turkey), and finally, during the emigration in France (1923-1956, Marseille, Sainte-Genevieve-des-Bois). From 1904 to 1916, V.N. Gadzhemukov worked in the various Consulates in the Middle East (The Ottoman Empire). He became an experienced diplomat and orientalist. In 1916, he was the Colonel in Russian Army. In the years 1917-1919, he began sociopolitical activity: V.N. Gadzhemukov became a member of the Kuban Regional Council. During the Civil War, he participated in battles as a Colonel of the White Army. In 1920-1922, he worked as a Consul in Constantinopole in the Russian Diplomatic Mission. The aim of this article is also to study the life of V.N. Gadzemukov in France from 1922 to 1956. The author has drawn a conclusion that the good career of the first Adyghe diplomat and orientalist was broken with the revolutionary events in the Russian Empire and the establishment of Soviet power, which forced Vasily Nikolaevich Gadzhemukov to come out to France. For many years, he lived in Marseille quietly, without work and social and political activity despite he was a bit more than 40 years old.
Adaptation resources of Moldovan colonists in economic and sociocultural space of the North-West Caucasus in the post-reform period
The article analyzes the problem of colonization of the North-West Caucasus by Moldovan settlers during the post-reform period. The time, reasons and circumstances of their appearance in this territory vary. An important feature of the resettlement movement to the North-West Caucasus was that the region had a local (multiethnic) population, and Moldovan migrants, by confessional affiliation - Orthodox, moved in parallel or joint groups with waves of migrants from the European part of Russia. However, representatives of earlier resettlement flows often perceived the newly arriving colonists from the perspective of old residents, which further exacerbated social relations in the region. Migration processes have caused complex sociocultural transformations in the North-West Caucasus among both allochthonic and autochthonous populations.
A characteristic feature of the post-reform period is the definite duality of imperial power in solving the resettlement problem. Evidences of such behavior are legislative acts expressing the intention to carefully control the resettlement movement because of its need, and documents that are in fact contrary to it.
The article identifies the difficulties of the process of migrant adaptation, and considers the contribution of Moldovans to the economic and socio-cultural development of the region. The long-standing functioning of the small Moldovan diaspora in the North-West Caucasus was primarily due to the preservation of the cultural identity of Moldovan colonists, which supported the viability of this ethnic organism and was manifested in the preservation of the native language, ethno-national culture, denominational affiliation and ethnic identity. The distance from the homeland of ancestors was made up for by a hypertrophic desire to preserve the national culture, to support its development and to be persistent towards assimilation.
The author emphasizes that the leading trend here was not mass borrowing, but inter-ethnic integration, which led to the formation of a single economic and sociopolitical space. The study of the migration of the Moldovan population to the North-West Caucasus, the identification of the mechanisms of identification and the processes of ethnic recognition that accompanied the resettlement movement is far from complete and is an important task of contemporary historical science.
Sultan Khan-Girey: on the status of Adyghe (Circassian) women in society
The article, based on foreign evidence, oral folk creativity and the works of S.Khan-Girey, considers the status of the Adyghe woman in the 13th through 19th centuries. The process of transformation of the "women's issue" in the works of foreign scientists and travellers has become the basis for the retrospective study, which was carried out by the Adyghe educator and folklorist. The earlier myth of Adyghe woman as a social entity deprived of legal status underwent reassessing through the provision of ethnographic and historical materials. Noting the primary role of a woman in the performance of economic tasks, the Adyghe educator consistently advocates the idea that it is impossible to preserve the traditional family life of Adyghes. He opts for the supporters of the opinion that has developed due to the ambivalently interpreted tradition of payment of kalym for the bride, involving the development of relations in line with the complete subordination and absolute dependence of the wife on the husband and his relatives. The understanding of a woman's status-role disposition is exacerbated by the functional requirements of the adates and norms of the Muslim law. The woman in the representation of S. Khan-Girey possesses all attributes of a full member of the Adyghe society and realizes her subjectness through the principles of reverence, respect and chivalry towards her. Moreover, respectful attitude towards women is built into the structure of the ethnic mentality of Adyghes and is presented in the spiritual space of Adyghe society with extrapolation to modernity. Based on the the analysis of these materials, the author concludes that men have a respectful attitude towards the female part of society, which is contrary to the well-established view of the disenfranchisement and humiliation of Circassian women.
Production and distribution of drugs in Asia in the second half of the 20th and early 21st centuries: reasons for intensification and countermeasures
The article deals with one of the most important challenges of human society in general and Asian peoples, in particular, the problem of counteracting the production and distribution of drugs in Asian countries in the second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. The study presents the scale of drug production in Asian countries, as well as the amount of income received by drug traffickers. In addition, the author draws attention to the extent of the drug threat not only to the development of the major drug-producing countries of Asia (Afghanistan, Myanmar, Laos), but also to the entire world community. The article analyzes the reasons for the intensification of drug production and distribution in the Asian countries of the Golden Crescent Zone and the Golden Triangle, as well as in the world as a whole. The study focuses on the factors that have led Afghanistan to produce a plant-based drug such as opium. The author also emphasizes measures to counter the production and distribution of drugs in Asia. The study notes the important role of the international community and a number of international organizations that help Asian countries to combat drug trafficking. The article compares, inter alia, the legislation of China and Russia concerning punishment for involvement in drug use. The author presents the intermediate results achieved by some Asian countries in combating the drug threat. The final part of the article analyzes the difficulties and problems that prevent a number of Asian countries from making significant progress in combating the production and distribution of drugs. The author arrives at a conclusion that those countries in Asia whose leaders have a clear political will to solve the above-mentioned problems, and which consistently combat corruption phenomena in the state apparatus, initiate the improvement of anti-drug legislation and carry out wide-ranging awareness-raising work on the fight against drugs, have achieved a marked turning point in the fight against the production and distribution of drugs.
Photography as a way of students’ self-presentation in social networks
The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the digital age, innovative technologies expand the field of interaction between people, which undergoes qualitative changes. The information society with dominating visual communication has become a point of great scientific interest. Information space of a modern young man cannot be imagined without visual communication and social networks. Sometimes he prefers virtual life, avoiding real communication. Online interactions expand the possibilities for creating one's own identity, and provide a young man with a wide range of opportunities for self-presentation to other participants in on-line space. In particular, one of the most popular self-presentation tools are personal photos posted on personal pages of social networks. The author notes that photography is a visual language of a person’s message to others. Self-presentation through visualization is a unique way to response to the outside world, a way of identification, a desire to be understood and accepted by a certain community. Visual communication is becoming an integral part of life of a modern youth, while the private / public demarcation line is rapidly erasing in Internet space.
The results of the study have shown that social networks are not only a way to communicate with old friends, but also a way to make new friends. Thanks to social networks, as was said above, photography from an intimate personal space passes into public space, and it becomes a mean for society to declare itself. We post on social networks the most diverse but significant for us photos: from small family events to professional achievements, from pets to nature contemplation.
A person, both in real and in virtual world, primarily draws attention to the external image of a person. However, all users of social networks remain open and honest in front of their audience and use not only personal photos as the main photo of their page (avatar). In this case, a unique opportunity to manage opinions about himself arises. By manipulation, the desired image of “superman” or “fatal beauty” is constructed, which determines the peculiarity of virtual self-presentation.
Social behavior patterns in health care as a subject of sociological researches in the South of Russia
The Edict of the President of the Russian Federation "On the Strategy for the Development of Health Care in the Russian Federation until 2025” outlines significant challenges to national security in the field of public health along with positive indicators of the health care dynamics. These challenges include the dissatisfaction of the population with the availability and quality of health care, the substitution of free health care by paid services etc. Moreover, the need to activate social reserves of human capital and to ensure the conditions for active longevity of the Russians becomes actual in terms of the pension reform and the problem of aging of the society. The spontaneously formed existing practices of medical activity of the population can hardly be called positive, i.e. contributing to the positive dynamics of the health status of an individual, the members of most social groups and the society as a whole. The scientific significance of the subject area of the article is determined by the need to overcome the existing differences in understanding the social connotation of medical activity, its factors and models in terms of the transformation of the healthcare institution. In the article, the author discusses the main directions of scientific research of social behavior in health care in the South of Russia. The health protection behaviour is seen primarily as the result of people’s interpretation of the social situation of health problems and “attributing” to it the values and meanings in a socio-cultural context of health care system. The relevance of the article is due to the need to determine theoretical and applied background of social research in health care in order to understand the key tasks and mission of sociology in solving the health care problems in the South of Russia. It is too early to define the scientific school of health sociology in the South of Russia despite generation of regional growth points in the research of social problems in health care and that the experienced and young scientists are involved in this process. At the same time, if the representatives of various sciences of the South of Russia cooperate, it will cause the institutionalization of a scientific school specializing in the interdisciplinary research of social processes and social behavior patterns in health care in the southern macroregion.
Zhade Z.A., Guchet lZ.H.
Political identity as an integration resource of the multiethnic space in the South of Russia
The article analyzes the potential of political identity in the consolidation of the Russian civil nation and integration of the multiethnic space in the South of Russia. The disintegration of some and the formation of new, often competing identities, not only with ethnic and religious, but also with regional content, as well as the restructuring of the established social order fill the political life of the region with specific meaning. Political identity as a level of social identity is eplored as an integrative and dynamic characteristic of a person in a political space. The formation and design of a political identity is a complex process in which an individual, social group or state can become subjects of political relations and interactions. On the one hand, its design is largely the result of the purposeful activities of the State, and identity politics, and, on the other hand, it is based on certain spontaneously formed political values, traditions and ideas.
According to the authors, the identification of the main factors affecting the dynamics of identification processes will contribute to the development of mechanisms and technologies to strengthen Russian identity and its harmonization with other, often competing, levels of identity.
The authors draw attention to the fact that political identity and integration processes based on it play a key role in the consolidation of the region, and contribute to the functioning of the South of Russia as a complete regional unit.
The article emphasizes that integration in a multiethnic South Russian society is a full-fledged process that covers, on the one hand, geographical space, and, on the other hand, various spheres of social life. Integration processes are determined by the logic of socio-economic, political-legal, and sociocultural development, which encourages the multiethnic regions of the South of Russia to actively interact and converge in order to ensure regional security. The article shows the undisputed importance of strengthening political identity, the main purpose of which is to consolidate society for the integration of the multiethnic region. The authors arrive at a conclusion that the sociocultural and political integration of the region is the most important basis for stability in the South of Russia.
Theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of domestic violence
The presented article is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of domestic violence in modern Russian society. The article analyzes various theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of this issue. The author notes a number of theories developed by contemporary researchers, one of which is the structural theory of Jeff Hearn and M. Scheller, according to which the culture of patriarchy has sociostructural consequences, forming and recording a constant difference between the status positions of men and women in society and the family.
The paper also presents gender theory, which defines gender as a structured pattern of social relations between the sexes, manifested both in interpersonal interaction within the family and in the institutional structure of society.
Thus, gender theory considers the social relations between men and women characteristic of modern society as bearing the seal of historically formed sociocultural stereotypes whose cultural genesis goes back to the deep past.
In the article, the author notes that the application of a sociocultural approach provides an opportunity to better understand the integration of attitudes towards domestic violence in a broad cultural context. The sociocultural approach focuses not only on the values underlying intra-family and gender relations, but also on structural, institutional and environmental factors that collectively influence the spread or reduction of intra-family violence in society. According to the author, the specificity of the sociocultural approach is the integration of all these factors into a single methodological structure, making it possible to examine the practices of family violence in the broadest context of social and cultural processes, as well as the long-term legacy of traditions of building and regulating domestic relations.
The use of a sociocultural approach, according to the author, gives an opportunity to emphasize the integration of relations to domestic violence in a wide cultural context, as well as to assess the dynamics of the attitude of society towards this phenomenon.
Kulikov E.M., Nurakhmedova A.A.
Empirical researches of mass communication audience: opportunities to integrate quantitative and qualitative strategies
Currently, important social and managerial goals and objectives are set for empirical research of mass communication audience. The level of requirements to the results of sociological projects is increased. The current situation in the mass communication system looks quite complex that actualizes the interest of communicators to representatives of practical sociological science. In the face of information overload and reduced effectiveness of the impact of messages on the mass audience or any of its significant segments, empirical sociology intends to search for and then test new solutions, models, and algorithms of communicators’ actions. The new conditions for the implementation of empirical projects dictate the need for competent integration of quantitative and qualitative paradigms in order to achieve the ultimate social and managerial result. At the same time, the more intensive use of empirical sociological researches for the analysis of the audience of mass communication is hampered by a number of relevant stereotypes and prejudices, concerning the timing, cost, quality, and most importantly, the utilitarianism of empirical projects for the practice of managing social communication. Another significant problem of contemporary cooperation between empirical sociology and the practice of social management in the field of mass communications is the weak realization of the social and engineering potential of primary sociological information. Often, the data obtained do not find the most effective application in management practice, as the sociologist disengages himself (for various reasons) from further participation in decision-making, and representatives of the management system do not have sufficient skills and qualifications. One of the major challenges is the use of quantitative and qualitative research in a comparative empirical project. The article demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative research in the analysis of the audience of mass communication, as well as identifies promising directions of application of the obtained data for optimization of cooperation between sociologists-researchers and specialists in the field of mass communication. Based on the example of methodically oriented research, the article shows the nature of the primary information obtained from the results of quantitative and qualitative analysis, and the problems and prospects of comparative empirical research of the audience of mass communication.
Study of the legal identity of the Tuva-Mongolian border community: sociological analysis
The article analyzes the results of the sociological study of the opinion of the residents of the Tuva-Mongolian border community in Tuva and Mongolia territories on the problems of the legal culture of the population, the level of delinquent behavior and the legal identity of the residents. Three groups of respondents, representatives of the Tuva-Mongolian border community, having different knowledge of the role and tasks of the state border are considered as the object of the study. The subject is the influence of these groups on the legal identity of border territories. The aim of the article is to explore the features of the legal identity of the Tuva-Mongolian community. We highlight three groups of respondents who support a particular point of view: state-minded persons, nihilists and a group of well-wishers. Hypothetically, it has been suggested that legal identity is formed depending on the number of supporters of a group. The study revealed the attitude of the three groups towards cross-border offences, based on which we arrived at a conclusion that, in general, the level of cross-border crime was low, but that the population on both sides of the border assessed its level of protection by law enforcement agencies differently. Mongols feel more protected than Tuvian respondents, with nihilistic respondents feeling more unprotected. The issue of preventing and reducing crime in border areas was raised. In the course of the study, we obtained scientifically based data that contribute to understanding the legal identity of the border communities of the Tuva-Mongolian site, developing specific practical measures to solve conflict issues. And we also received confirmation of the conceptual foundations of the theory of sociology of the space by G. Zymmel that the border as a sociological fact, which took a spatial form, is determined by the border community. There is one border between Tuva and Mongolia, but despite this, the inhabitants of the neighboring territories have different views on most issues, which may be diametrically opposite. Each side has its own understanding of the legal norms, border, offences and all other elements of the legal processes of the Tuva-Mongolian border community.
Plotnikov V.V., Kasparov A.R.
On the social factors of extremism
The article describes the social grounds for the emergence of an extremist threat. The specificity of the author 's approach to solving this problem lies in the analysis of the patterns of functioning of the main social institutions in the conditions of transformational processes taking place in contemporary society. The issues under study are considered from the position of phenomenological sociology. In this regard, extremism is seen as a manifestation of the systemic contradictions of a transforming society. The authors recognize the need to respond to symptomatic events, but point to the need to counter the causes of the extremist threat. Based on a sociostructural and functionalist approach, the authors demonstrate the institutional foundations of extremism as a social phenomenon. In this vein, the social system is presented as a constantly changing, heterogeneous structure, subject to external and internal dynamic processes. The contradictions accumulated during the transformation process become real factors in the emergence of extremist activity. At the same time, one of the main problems is that in modern discourse extremism is presented as an independent process, rather than a phenomenon (manifestation of structural functional contradictions).
Virtual cemetery as a commemorative practice: varieties and development vectors
The article is devoted to the process of the impact of digital technologies on remembrance practices, which results in a new phenomenon in social reality: the creation of memorials and cemeteries in cyberspace. Today it becomes normal to bring the subject of human death into a virtual world for the purpose of producing collective memories and carrying out remembrance. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to pose the problem of the development of commemorative practices in the modern digital environment. Using the materials of foreign research within the framework of the sociology of culture and based on the data of his own observations, the author determines the discourse of online communations and shows possible varieties of places of remembrance in the Russian-language Internet. Since places of memory in virtual space are a recent phenomenon for scientific research, the author demonstrates the possibilities and methods of studying it within the framework of the sociology of culture. In the course of the study, the author identifies three types of virtual cemeteries, each of which has features of remembrance depending on the individual distance of the online memorial with the real burial of the deceased. The demarcation criterion for the author is the perception of the cemetery as a sign where the “signifier” (gravestone, image) is associated with the “signified” (image). Losing the position of one of the elements leads to a change in commemoration as a social practice. Therefore, the author concludes that the more pronounced the described separation of the “signifiers” (burials) from the “signified” (image of the deceased) is, the weaker the integrative function of the commemorative practice becomes. Although online commentations have a connection to genuine practices of remembrance, the digital environment gives them a public character and alters the perception of the subject of death in real society. The expansion of death in public discourse leads to issues of privacy in cyberspace and to the social responsibility of users for the implementation of compositional practices. Thus, the sociological problem of the study falls within the field of ethics and law enforcement, which leads to a subsequent study of the problem posed by the author.
Hlabystova N.V., Netrebko E.N.
Transformation of the value of education in the system of "university – undergraduate applicants - students - labor market" interaction
The transition of Russian society to a market model of the economy creates a transformation of the entire social system. The nature of the producer-consumer interaction changes. These changes are also reflected in the institute of education: the commercial sector of educational services is emerging, as well as public institutions are beginning to provide educational services on a paid basis. Due to these changes, education in Russia has become a special commodity, the main consumers of which are undergraduate applicants, students and employers (labor market). Therefore, research aimed at studying the institute of higher education in interaction with its main consumers becomes important.
In the article, the authors carry out a secondary analysis of sociological research in order to study the transformation of the value of education in the main consumers of the institute of education. The study of the requirements of applicants, students and employers is today particularly relevant, as competitiveness of the institution of higher education in the market of educational services depends on the extent to which the university meets the requirements of contemporary society.
In this article, the authors tried to answer the question of how the value of education in the thinking of consumers of educational services was transformed in connection with the transition of Russian society to a market model of the economy. They rightly stress that the value of education today is transforming from terminal value to instrumental value for all consumers of educational services.
Thus, undergraduate applicants are oriented towards higher education to improve social status and material well-being. When choosing a university and a training direction, a resource-saving strategy is used. For undergraduate applicants the determining factors of choice of educational institution are: prestige of the university and high level of quality of education.
Students, as consumers of educational services, are oriented towards acquiring practical experience in the process of studying at a university. Therefore, the value of education in the perception of students is determined by the possibility of further successful employment.
The transformation of the value of education also takes place in the thinking of employers. The contemporary employer in employment draws attention to the universal competences of the applicant: ability to analyze the situation, work in the collective, make independent decisions, and be always able to innovate, communicable and creative.
Chagin V.S., Tuguz F. K.
Suicide as a special form of deviant behavior of young people: theoretical aspect
The presented article is devoted to the study of the main sociocultural causes of suicidal behavior among young people. The author attempts to analyze the main factors of suicidal behavior as the most dangerous form of deviation, using existing theoretical approaches of sociological science.
The article shows that one of the main factors for the development of various forms of deviant behavior among young people is the specificity of the formation of the personality of the individual during the adolescent period. According to the author, adolescent age is characterized by the transformation of the mental state of the person and the destruction of the formed relations with individuals, as well as the change of living conditions. Age experiences have extreme manifestations and are a provoking factor to aggression.
The author uses integrative and interdisciplinary approaches to identify the main social and sociocultural causes of youth suicide, such as: family contradictions, conflicts with members of the opposite sex caused by age and sex factors of influence, interpersonal conflicts in the collective, influence of the sociocultural environment (subcultural diversity, influence of network communities, etc.).
However, the author notes that none of the reasons listed can be sufficient to commit suicide without interacting with other factors. He also concludes that all identified youth suicide phenomena have certain characteristics covering different aspects of the phenomenon. In all reasons, the author sees the influence of social and sociocultural factors as a condition that provokes suicide.
Based on the aforesaid, the author concludes that the phenomenon of suicidal behavior among young people has a direct relationship with the structure of society, its specific characteristics, including sociocultural ones. He stresses that suicidal manifestations should be examined as a complex phenomenon arising from the appropriate nature of social relations. In the process of research of youth suicide, the specifics of this social group should also be taken into account. At the same time, the study of the present phenomenon among young people is not feasible without taking into account contemporary sociocultural conditions.
Religious identity of mountain Jews: indicators of reproduction
The changes taking place in contemporary Russian society have affected all social spheres, including the ethnoreligious, within which very complex and contradictory processes are taking place. Therefore, establishing the place of religious identity in the hierarchy of types of social identity is a pressing problem, because interreligious climate and stability, especially in a multireligious and multiethnic environment, depend on its expression and demand for mass consciousness. The study shows that "religion" is one of the key components of the reproduction of the ethnic identity of the mountain Jews, along with other identifiers (national language, national traditions and customs, historical territory, memory and historical past), with it dominating in the hierarchy of ethnic indicators. The study of religious identity and religious behavior of mountain Jews has shown that in the structure of social identity, religious identity is dominant. Moreover, respondents held the position that Judaism played a key role in preserving their ethnic unity and integrity. Further, empirical evidence indicates that the vast majority of the surveyed mountain Jews have a sense of community with representatives of their people and common believers, while ethnoreligious identity is central in the formation of their behavioral and worldview attitudes.
Empirical evidence states that the mountain Jews denote unity with both members of their ethnic community and with common believers, which is the basis for concluding the importance for them of both national and religious factors, moreover, this fact is the basis for the formation of ethnoreligious identity. At the same time, a sociological study revealed the existence in the socio-demographic perspective of differences in the definition of the place and role of Judaism in the attitudes of the mountain Jews surveyed. In addition, the results of the study suggest that religious regulations, in particular prayer, fasting, reading of religious texts, visiting a synagogue, etc., are a manifestation of ethnoreligious unity, which contribute to the consolidation of an ethnic group and, in this process, religious consciousness implements one of the most important functions.
Smart city: yesterday, today, tomorrow
Smart city or "clever city" is a new concept. It just comes into our lives, and not everyone understands its full meaning. The aim of creating a "smart city" is to improve the quality of life based on information technology in order to improve the living standards of urban residents. With their help, city authorities can directly interact with urban infrastructure and urban communities, as well as monitor the development of the city to develop ways to improve the quality of life. We are witnessing the beginning of a new era – the era of smart cities. This paper traces the history of the concept of "smart city" since its appearance in the 1990s as a fantastic future. Next, we consider the gradual realization of the vital need to implement a digital framework in the management of the economy and infrastructure of the city. In 2008, with the onset of the financial crisis, it became clear that it is necessary to change radically the economic system at all levels, starting with the municipal, including changing the methods of planning. The successive steps, and projects aimed at the transition to a data-driven city (or DDC) are described. The necessity of introduction of advanced digital technologies in the field of urban management, ensuring the competitiveness of Russian companies in the field of information and communication technologies and the creation of promising products and services in the markets of digitalization of urban and territorial management is substantiated. The article describes the list of mandatory requirements for Smart City, such as an intelligent city management center, a digital platform for solving urban planning issues, a system of automated control of the work of road services and municipal equipment, "smart" housing, energy-efficient urban lighting, face recognition system and others. We summarize that at the expert level it is customary to distinguish three conditional phases of development (generation) of smart cities: - SMART CITY 1.0-technology-oriented city; SMART CITY 2.0-high-tech managed city; SMART CITY 3.0 is a highly intelligent integrated city. It is emphasized that the era of smart cities is just beginning.
Oboturov V.A., Shatalova O.I., Mukhoryanova O.A.
METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE FORMATION OF SECTORAL STRATEGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL ECONOMY
The article discusses the modern features of strategic planning of socio-economic development at the national and regional levels. Methodical approaches to the formation of sectoral strategies used in various regions of the Russian Federation are presented; analyzed the main practical results of testing these approaches when developing a development strategy for the agro-industrial complex of the Stavropol Territory; The main directions of supporting the development of agricultural territories are considered.
Economy of Agrarian-Industrial Complex
Kastidi Yu.K., Karsanov K.B., Yasinenko A.A., Efremov K.M.
INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF USING AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN THE PRODUCTION OF CROP PRODUCTION (THEORETICAL ASPECTS)
The article discusses the role and place of the technical base of the agricultural enterprise in the crop production system. Authors' classification of costs in crop production is presented. The place in it of direct costs for the operation of agricultural machinery is shown. An analysis of the structure of these costs in the industry under study was carried out, which showed that more than 55% of all operating costs are in depreciation and maintenance and machine repairs. The authors substantiated the objective possibility of reducing operating costs by organizing the effective use of mechanization.
TERRITORIAL AND SECTORAL FEATURES, DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMY OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE PROBLEM REGION
The article reveals the essence and specificity of reproduction processes in the territorial agro-industrial complex. The results of a comprehensive analysis of reproduction processes in the agro-industrial complex of the Republic of Adygea, belonging to the group of problem (budget-deficit) regions of the South of Russia, are presented.
Territorial and sectoral features and competitive advantages of the agro-industrial complex of the Republic of Adygea are revealed. The strategic directions of socio-economic development of the agro-industrial complex of the Republic of Adygea in the conditions of regional budget deficit and the current food embargo are highlighted.
Kobozeva E.M., Osipova N.E.
RESEARCH OF CORPORATE CULTURE AS A COMPANY BRAND RESOURCE
This article discusses the impact of corporate culture on the effectiveness of the organization. The scientific approaches to the definition of “corporate culture” are disclosed. It is noted that corporate culture is a strong competitive advantage, the basis of the long existence of the company's brand. The main components of the brand structure are highlighted, the composition of the brand resources of the enterprise is presented, the key component of which is the corporate culture. The models of corporate culture are analyzed on the example of a specific enterprise. The conclusion is made that timely diagnosis of the organization’s culture is one of the tools in solving the most important strategic tasks of the organization’s top management. It is noted that the study of corporate culture, which is the guarantor of the long existence of the company and its brand, allows you to adjust the organization’s management.
Kolomyts O.N., Boyko A.N., Resnyanskaya K.K.
FACTORS, CRITERIA AND INDICATORS OF EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT OF THE MODERN ORGANIZATION
In the article the analysis of different theoretical positions defining the notion “efficiency”; identified and classified the factors influencing productivity of labour, which is necessary for assessment of activity of the enterprise; considers the issues of productivity indicators to assess the results of the labor of personnel; the necessity of having a mechanism of calculation and analysis of productivity at different hierarchical levels.
General Problems of Pedagogy
Baeva T.E., Kraft N.N., Dzhabatyrova B.K.
FORMATION OF SUBJECT CONTENT OF PEDAGOGICAL DISCIPLINES BASED ON STUDY OF MOTIVATION IN STUDENTS
The paper shows why it is necessary to select the subject content of pedagogical disciplines based on the study of educational and professional motivation of students. The research identifies that significance of motives and personal qualities of the specialist predominate. The authors have analyzed the results of the study of motivation in students, based on which they formulate recommendations on content of pedagogical disciplines.
Blyagoz N.Sh., Kulakov A.A., Churikov Yu.S.
ASPECTS OF PATRIOTIC EDUCATION OF MODERN YOUNG PEOPLE: THE STATE OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of patriotic education and civil development of the younger generation today is one of the urgent tasks of the state, society and educational institutions of our country. At present, in Russia, we often observe separation from the national culture, the euphoria of permissiveness in society, with a clear weakening of moral standards of behavior, failure of the ideological and moral continuity between generations, between the values of the past and the present. This paper examines the conditions under which the patriotic education of citizens acquired the status of one of the most urgent tasks of the state, society and educational institutions of our country and which legal bases of patriotic education exist so far.
The goal of patriotic education is to develop in the person a high social activity of civic responsibility, spirituality, a personality with positive values and qualities enabled to manifest them in the creative process, in the interests of the Fatherland. The national education doctrine not only defines the state policy in the field of education, but also gives the state’s social order to educate a person with an active life and professional attitude, hardworking and highly moral, patriot of his homeland, respecting the rights and freedoms of an individual, tradition and culture of other nations.
Bulakh K.V., Tsakliotis G.
DIDACTIC POTENTIALITIES OF QUEST TECHNOLOGIES IN SHAPING DIVERGENT THINKING IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE
This paper examines the problem of shaping divergent thinking in children of pre-school age through quest technologies. The authors analyze the following methods of formation of divergent thinking in children of pre-school age: a method of projects; problem learning technologies; the Method of focal objects; Brainstorming techniques; Synectics method; Symbolic vision techniques; and Quest technology. A characteristic of quest technology and its didactic potentialities in the pedagogical process is given. The publication discloses the content of the process of formation of divergent thinking in pre-school children through quest technologies (quest games), which differ in the motivational component in symbiosis with game activity, and make it possible to achieve the greatest inclusion of the child in the process of formation of divergent thinking.
Grebenkina Yu.V., Khazova S.A.
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT FOR PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS IN CONDITIONS OF MODERN MEDIA: PROBLEM STATEMENT
The paper is devoted to the setting and justification of the problem of negative impact of the media system as a factor of growth of aggressiveness among teenagers. In this aspect, the work describes key characteristics of media content that determine the aggressiveness of adolescents. These include media violence and stories giving rise to anxiety and fear. The main reasons for active distribution of malicious media products are noted. The publication presents modern approaches to creating a safe information environment and shows possibilities of media education in modern Russia.
Gynu N.N., Shkuropy K.V.
FORMATION OF METHODOLOGICAL COMPETENCE AT YOUNG TEACHERS OF MILITARY UNIVERSITY
At present, in the Russian military education system, the problem of forming a high level of professional competence for teachers of universities is urgent. Methodological competence is one of the important structural components of vocational and pedagogical competence of teachers of the university and implies availability and implementation by the teacher of methodological knowledge, methodological skills in educational activities. We have established that, so far, many aspects of the process of formation of methodological competence of teachers of higher military educational institutions are poorly studied and are not scientifically justified and the search for ways of their effective solution is relevant. The model developed by the author allows ensuring high efficiency of vocational and pedagogical interaction of participants of the process of formation of methodological competence in the educational space of the military university.
Dulatov I.I., Shkuropy K.V.
TEACHING SYSTEM OF PARACHUTE RESCUE TRAINING OF CADETS OF MILITARY AVIATION SCHOOL
In the Russian military education system, the need to comply with GEF requirements and military qualification requirements to the level of training of a graduate of a military university guides the heads and faculty of military universities to find promising directions in improving the military training of future officers. The study of special literature shows that many aspects of the problem of military-professional training of cadets from aviation universities to effective actions in conditions of emergency are not sufficiently developed. The poorly studied direction of preparation of future pilots for action in emergency is parachute and rescue training. It has been established that scientific and methodological support of this direction of military-professional training of cadets from aviation universities is possible to implement through the development of a pedagogical system, which allows us to comprehensively form professionally important qualities of a military pilot, ensuring theoretical, practical, physical and psychological readiness of cadets for effective actions in emergency situations.
Evtushenko Yu.L., Sirik S.N.
PROBLEM OF TARGETING IN TRAINING OF CADETS OF MILITARY AVIATION UNIVERSITIES: THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Successful functioning of the educational organization is impossible without a system of pedagogical goals and tasks of general cultural and professional training of students. An analysis of the existing directions of educational activities at military universities providing training of qualified military personnel has identified promising ways to adjust the established target approaches in the military education system. They guide the teacher and the student not only to achieve the current results recorded in the indicators of knowledge growth, skills, but also to the long-term results shown in the level of development of professional experience and the corresponding set of competences. It has been established that in determining the integral purpose of military-professional education it is necessary to focus on the development of the personality of the cadet and the complex of his general cultural, professional and professional-specialized competences as the future military engineer for flight operation of aircraft.
Kashirskaya Yu.S., Gulynina E.V., Kazakova N.A.
THE DESIGN OF THE EDUCATIONAL RESULTS IN THE UPDATED EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY
The objective changes taking place in the country and in the world have created and deepen the contradictions between the results of the actual model of the educational process carried out at the pedagogical University and the new tasks that the University graduate is called to solve today. The relevance of the issues discussed in this paper is primarily due to the tasks of modernization of programs and models of training of modern teachers facing today's Russian education. Based on the analysis of domestic and international experience, the basic principles are formulated that should allow the development of high-quality educational programs which eventually provide a predicted result.
Klyuchnikov Yu.Yu., Petkov V.A.
MODELING OF CHILDREN 'S CULTURAL AND SPORTS CLUB EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
The paper presents the pedagogical bases of simulation of children's cultural and sports club educational system. The developed model of the educational system of the children's cultural and sports club includes conceptual grounds, goals, tasks, principles, subjects of the pedagogical process; forms and methods of organization of work, criteria for evaluation of efficiency and pedagogical conditions of its successful functioning. The model provides means for a positive influence on the upbringing of children; it stimulates their social formation. It is based on the best pedagogical experience in organizing sociocultural and sports activities with children, implemented taking into account the modern social situation, and fully corresponds to the social order of society in the field of education of the younger generation.
MASS CULTURE AND EDUCATION: ESSENCE, PROPERTIES AND FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATIONAL SIMULACRA
An analysis is made of the concept of "simulacrum" in humane scientific knowledge. The paper describes the process of transformation of mass culture in conditions of digitalization and gives the definition of the term "educational simulacrum". The author discloses the essence, properties and functions of educational simulacra. The status of educational simulacrum as a megafactor of socialization and development of students is justified.
Makarova E.A., Loskutnikova A.M.
THE EFFECT OF STRESS ON STUDENTS OF THE SENIOR CLASSES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS OF SOUTH KOREA AND THE UK
This research focuses on studying the problems associated with the stress of high school students in schools of South Korea and the United Kingdom, on identifying the decisive factors through interviews and finding possible solutions to the problem of stress and the effective use of coping strategies to overcome it. In the context of modern globalization, enormous psychological pressure is put upon every individual. Scientific progress, large amounts of information create tension in all areas of society, as it is constantly in need of innovation and modernization that meets the requirements of modernity. Education is no exception. Constant reforms have led to the emergence of enormous psychological workload of students, which was the cause of the appearance of stress that is harmful to their health, and sometimes even to life.
Thanks to preliminary surveys, it turned out that life in South Korean society, especially among adolescents, is very tense. This is evidenced by a high suicide rate among adolescents. However, we also revealed high psychological tensions of modern British students compared with previous generations. This is particularly reflected in high school students, since the workload at an educational institution coincides with a very difficult pubertal period for each individual. Creating programs of psychological support in the learning process, and especially during the final examinations, requires the combined efforts of teachers and psychologists. For the effective use of such programs, it is necessary to study foreign experience, and to conduct a comparative analysis of their use in different education systems.
Meretukova Z.K., Chinazirova A.R.
THE PROBLEM OF STRENGTHENING MORAL AND SPIRITUAL EDUCATION IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AS A SUBSTRATE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A HOLISTIC PERSONALITY
The relevance of the problem of strengthening moral and spiritual education in the educational process is justified. The facts and reasons for exacerbating the moral and spiritual crisis in the world, in our country, among others, are considered. The thesis is justified that moral and spiritual insensitivity of people is the cause of social, political, economic and environmental crises and that it is moral and spiritual education that is the basis for solving the problems of all other directions of education, formation of a holistic personality. The publication reveals the possibilities of strengthening moral and spiritual education in the educational process of the university.
REHABILITATION AND EDUCATIONAL SITUATIONS AS A MEANS OF SHAPING SOCIAL AND PERSONAL VIABILITY OF DEVIANT ADOLESCENTS: DESIGN PRINCIPLES
Rehabilitation and educational situations are considered as a leading pedagogical tool for the formation of the social and personal viability of adolescents with devitic behavior. The principles of their design (the principle of the sense integrity of the knowledge component of the rehabilitation and educational situation; the principle of organization of personal orientation of rehabilitation and educational situation; and the principle of development and competence design).
Khazova S.A., Gitman A.V.
FEATURES OF PEDAGOGICAL PREVENTION OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR OF ADOLESCENTS FROM FAMILIES WITH DIFFERENT FINANCIAL SITUATION
The paper discloses the diagnostic bases and gives practical recommendations on the organization of pedagogical prevention of deviant behavior of teenagers from families with different financial situation. The publication describes the used diagnostic tools to determine the tendency to deviant behavior and the structure of value orientations of the personality. The method is described of determining the level of material well-being of the family. The results of the socio-psychological survey of a group of adolescents are presented, and the differences between the deviantological tendencies of adolescents depending on the financial situation of the family are illustrated. Recommendations are made on the organization of pedagogical work with different groups of adolescents.
Spells in the Agul ritual folklore
The article analyzes the texts of spells, stored in the handwritten fund of the Research Institute of Philology named after A.F. Nazarevich of Dagestan State University, in handwritten funds of Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Research Institute of the Language, Literature and Art named after Gamzat Tsadasa of Dagestan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences and in personal archives, many of which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The main purpose of this article is to study the genre nature of spells, as one of the genres of ritual poetry of the Aguls. The study of Agul spells is carried out using comparative-typological and comparative-historical research methods. As a result of the undertaken research, the genre features of Agul omens, their function in the composition of the rite and ritual, and the features of their compositional construction are revealed. The texts of the spells are classified and their various types are distinguished, as well as the fact that the spells served as the basis for the formation of a number of ritual folklore genres - spell songs, well-wishes and well-wish songs, prayers and prayings.
Menkenova K.V., Khabunova E.E.
Kalmyk oral narratives about Burhn Bagshi (Buddha Teacher) and Buddha Shakyamuni’s life description: similarities and differences
The paper presents a comparative analysis of oral narratives about Buddha Shakyamuni recorded in the territory of the Republic of Kalmykia in 2012-2013 by teachers, post-graduate students and students of the Kalmyk State University. The folklore narrative in this study is compared with namtar, a genre of Buddhist literature representing the life description of Buddha Shakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism. The life description and instructions of Buddha Shakyamuni were available in the Kalmyk (Oirat) environment in oral form during the period of the propagation of Buddhism among Kalmyks (Oirats). Being transformed and being filled with folklore elements, namtara continue the modern existence in the form of the legends, fairy tales and oral stories narrating about deities of a Buddhist pantheon, the famous pundits and lamas. A special place among them is occupied by the Kalmyk oral stories about Buddha Shakyamuni. They clearly show folklore motifs (wonderful birth, rapid growth, travel to another world, etc.). Similarities and differences of folk ideas about Buddha Shakyamuni and his canonic life descriptions are revealed and described. The analysis makes it possible to conclude that Buddhist literature had a significant influence on the oral folk creativity of the Kalmyks.
Albo Taslich Mohammed Imad Qadim
Conflict in Syria and Iraq
An attempt is undertaken to analyze the military-political crisis as an object of research into journalism. Attention is focused on the need to cover the investigated conflict as objectively as possible, which can be facilitated by deepening into the history of the issue. The goal is to analyze the military-political crisis as an object of journalism research. Today 's events, both political and social, are becoming increasingly important, with increasing global implications. To study these events and, to the extent possible, to direct their development into the most productive and safe course - it is not only political scientists, sociologists and military scientists, but also journalists’ affair. It is full possession of the situation, in the author 's opinion, that will help to avoid involuntary bias, as well as to predict the further direction of the situation. The main methods that allowed defining the military-political crisis as the object of research of journalism, on the example of the Iraqi and Syrian conflict - comparative analysis, political method, and historical method. The results of this study can be used in theoretical studies on the analysis of the content and essence of the military-political crisis as the object of the study of journalism: the specifics of the approach on the example of the Iraqi and Syrian crises.
Novak M.V., Beshukova F.B.
Hybridities in media discourse as a specific communicative strategy of the Carpathian-Russian press of the United States of America in the late 19th and 20th centuries
The Carpathian-Russian language is used as an example to show the result of the Anglo-Slavic interaction, which was expressed in the formation of the hybrid language of the Carpathian-Russian newspaper press of the United States Slavic diaspora during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The aim of this study is to justify from the point of view of media communicativistics the necessity and expediency of the language policy of hybridization. Linguistic and content analysis methodologies were used to reveal that this hybrid language was formed based on active borrowing and word formation. The Carpathian-Russian, native for most of readers, Russian as adstrat and English-language loans were its basis. The process of word formation connected vocabulary, semantics and grammar. The main result of this study is the findings that the active processes of language hybridization that took place in the confessional Carpathian-Russian press of the United States of America in the late 19th and 20th centuries contributed to increasing the efficiency of media communication.
Presentation in the media of cinematographic phenomena with photographic materials
The nature of cinema, from its very origin, carried the entertaining character of a visual attraction. Nevertheless, for more than a century, the cinema has continued to attract the attention of millions of viewers around the world, never ceasing to amaze, forming whole cults, fan clubs and communities. Thus, cinema as a subject of art, primarily consisting of a graphic component, is a phenomogenic structure, the key subjects for studying of which for us are photographic materials, both journalistic and frames from the films themselves and their discursive aspects. The purpose of this study is to set the vector for further development of the discursive nature of photographic materials about cinema and, in particular, those used in media sources from cinema films. The relevance of the study is due to the subtle specifics of journalistic activity in the application of photographic materials in media articles about film content. This work demonstrates the positive impact on the media environment as a phenomenological structure, relying based on modern interest of the audience and readership to the visual component, namely the correlation of cinema as a visual art and photo materials representing cinema.
Study of Arts
Begicheva O.V., Andrushchack T.S.
Infernal alien, hero-lover or valiant warrior: the image of Viking in the opuses of romantic composers on the ballad of H.W. Longfellow “The Skeleton in Armor”
The paper explores the portrait characteristic of the main character of the ballad by H.W. Longfellow "The Skeleton in Armor", arising at the intersection of three storylines - mystical, loving and heroic. The purpose of this publication is to consider the specifics of the implementation of the three facets of the image in the works of romantic composers of the late 19th century using the methods of theoretical poetics and holistic musicological analysis. The objective of the work is to determine the ability of music to enrich the meaning facets of the image through the capabilities of its language. The authors reveal the mythopoetic nature of the Viking image and sources of its origin, which determine the subject-conceptual side of the ballad content. The conclusion is drawn about the philosophicity of the literary source, which relies on the ballad genre-forming situation of the meeting of the two worlds, where Viking and Poet are binary structures.
Antique sculpture as an expression of ideas about female beauty
The paper is devoted to the art of sculpture in Ancient Greece, expressing the idea of beauty and harmony. The data obtained in the framework of the presented scientific research contribute to the definition of fundamental laws that determine the plastic sculptural images, revealing the ideal of ancient female beauty. The imagery of "beauty" is determined through the unique technique of "chiasmus" from the point of view of aesthetics. The results of the study have theoretical significance, which lies in the systematization of approaches to identify the essence of the ancient Greek Canon of the female image. There is a natural tendency of various representatives of the fine arts of Ancient Greece to strive for the idealization of images, both in compliance with the Canon of external forms, and in the idealization of the internal content of the artistic image. The publication traces the evolution of the form of the Greek women from the archaic period with the cult of natural forces (crust), the subsequent classic period based on mythology (Aphrodite de Milo or Aphrodite of Cnidus), and the end of the Hellenistic period with the typical pathetic context (Nike of Samothrace). The obtained data can successfully be applied in cross-cultural studies as a theoretical basis for further study of the peculiarities of visualization of the female image in different epochs of humanity’s historical development.
Review on the monographic study of Martazanova H.M. "Ingush prose of the 20th century: national-artistic background, genre specificity, poetics"
Yakimov A.V., Khadartseva D.A., Saprykin M.A., Lvov V.D.,Cherchesova S.K., Efimova T.N.
The fauna of bivalve mollusks (Bivalvia) of the northern slopes of the Central Caucasus
The paper presents data on the fauna of bivalve mollusks of Kabardino-Balkaria. In total only 6 species of the studied group of aquatic organisms have been found in water ecosystems of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. Almost all of them are confined to the water bodies of the lowland-foothill zone of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic.
Ushkho D.S., Tlyachev V.B., Ushkho A.D.
An estimate from above of the number of invariant straight lines of n-th order polynomial vector field in one case
We prove that the invariant straight line of the affine-transformed differential system, the right parts of which are n-degree polynomials, passes through the n-th equilibrium of this system, two of which are out-of-node points. At the same time, if the system has two invariant straight lines passing through a certain out-of-node point, then n is odd. Conditions are identified under which the system has no invariant straight line. The main result is the assertion that the number s of invariant straight lines of the system, when certain inequalities are fulfiled, meets the condition s is less than or equal to 2n+4 (n is greater than or equal to 3) , provided that this estimate is accurate at n = 5. All assertions which are being proved are accom-panied by examples.
Nakhusheva F.M., Vodakhova V.A., Dzhankulaeva M.A.,Guchaeva Z.K.
Numerical solution of a diffusion equation with a fractional derivative in time with concentrated heat capacity
We consider the diffusion equation with a fractional derivative with respect to time, when the concentrated heat capacity of a certain quantity is placed on the boundary of the region. As a result, a priori estimates in the differential and difference interpretation have been obtained.
Kozlov V.A., Palandzhyants L.Z.
On subalgebra structure of polynomial multiplicatively integrated matrix functions of the second order. V
We continue to study the problem of polynomial curvilinear multiplicative integrals. In this work we reveal structure of subalgebra of multiplicatively integrated matrix functions of the second order. The study is carried out in degrees of polynomial curves.
Nakhusheva F.M., Vodakhova V.A., Dzhankulaeva M.A.,Guchaeva Z.K.
Numerical method for solving the local problem for the equation of moisture transfer with a fractional derivative in time
In this paper, we consider the boundary value problem for the equation of moisture transfer with a fractional derivative with respect to time. Difference scheme is constructed. As a result, a priori estimates in the differential and difference interpretation have been obtained. An algorithm for the numerical solution of the problem in question is proposed.
Meditative lyrics in the works of the Circassian poet Muaed Pkheshkhov
This study discusses the features of the meditative lyrics of the Circassian poet and talented journalist Muaed Pkheshkhov. An aesthetic analysis of his poems is carried out, in which the author’s moral discoveries and features of creative individuality are most clearly visible. Particular attention is paid to the poet's innovation in the use of original poetic tropes, figurative and expressive means: comparisons, epithets, reifications, and metaphors. The publication notes that M. Pkheshkhov successfully combines his creative self with the national tradition, which he enriches with new images, harmonious sound organization of the verse, and exuberant rhymes. The paper touches upon the successful journalistic activity of M. Pkheshkhov, which played an important role in the development of a creative individuality in his poetry. In the works of M. Pkheshkhov, there are wonderful landscape and love poems, but, as noted in this publication, meditative lyrics, in which the thought and philosophy of life prevail, occupy a significant place in them. Recommendations are made to use the works of M.Pkheshkhov in the practice of secondary and higher schools of the Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria.
The problem of national character in T.M. Kerashev’s prose about the historical past
The paper examines the methods to solve the problem of the national character of the hero in historical prose of the Adyghe writer Tembot Kerashev. An attempt is undertaken to highlight the peculiarities of the writer’s artistic thinking of the Adyghes ancestors’ holistic picture of the world as a system of national worldview. For the first time, the author draws a conclusion that the national nature of the historical Adyghe is multidimensional and that the writer uses the innovative approach in its re-creation. Stories and novellas on the historical theme served the material of this publication. The study is based on a comparative-historical method, which makes it possible to analyze the essence of the manifestation of national character in literature and the role of history in the process of its formation and movement in time. This study is interesting as a new view of the national hero in the historical prose of T. Kerashev and can be used in literary analysis. The people's epic consciousness, historical and moral-aesthetic experience of Adyghes - ancestors of the modern Adyghe people - became the basis to reconstruct the worldview complex of the traditional national picture of the world and to form the concept of national character in the works of Tembot Kerashev, the writer who discovered the humanist concept of personality in historical prose.
Dzhambekova T.B., Dzhambekov Î.À.
Constant folklore micro-units and their influence on the plot-poetic structure of the Chechen story and short novel in the period of their origin and development
This study discusses the problems of the formation of Chechen literature, in which in the late 1920s and early 1930s a satirical story becomes historically conditional. Largely based on folklore, it successfully evolves, constantly being refined up to the forties of the past century. The first attempt to move from the collection and publication of national folklore to literary creativity, to artistic reflection of the new reality is the stories of M. Salmurzaev, I. Eldarkhanov, S. Baduev and some others. The form and figurative structure of these stories directly go to the poetic qualities of satirical-humorous works. Genre and other poetic folklore micro-units are transferred to the fabric of works, which are distinguished by the brevity of dialogues, expressiveness, moral teaching of literary text, small number of heroes, i.e. qualities characteristic of folklore works. Oral folk creativity in relations with written literature, even though young, having no deep traditions, nevertheless forms complex intra-genre and styling patterns. In them, commonalities and boundary lines arise not only at the level of storytelling or the use of poetic possibilities of parables, short fairy tales and other types of oral creativity, but also in the mastering and understanding of the philosophy and folk wisdom on which the folk world outlook, folk artistic consciousness are based.
Kapets V.P., Kapets O.V.
Metaphysics in the works of F.M. Dostoevsky: the anthropological aspect
An analysis is made of the metaphysics of human nature in the works of F.M. Dostoevsky with the aim to explore the metaphysics of the thinker in the anthropological aspect. The phenomenological, hermeneutic and comparativistic methods are used to examine the essential characteristics of man, to reveal different levels of human being, including natural, "underground", and supernatural. The paper shows a number of basic ideas proposed by Dostoevsky, which fundamentally influenced humane knowledge, in particular anthropology. For the most in-depth reflection of the worldview and creativity of the writer, we apply the approach of "vertical-horizontal cartography of the boundary of human nature" and for the first time introduced the concept of "basic constants of human existence". Owing to the analysis, in our opinion, we have chosen the key to understanding the nature of man by F.M.Dostoyevsky, which is fundamental and which explains the influence of the thinker on Russian religious philosophy, literature and entire humane knowledge. The results of the study contribute to a better understanding of F.M. Dostoyevsky 's creativity, as well as the development of modern anthropology.
Kapets O.V., Shishkhova N.M.
Philosophical problems of F.M. Dostoevsky 's novel "The Brothers Karamazov"
The material of the philosophical concepts of I.Kant and the text of the last novel by F.M. Dostoyevsky are used to explore the field of possible interfacing of two worldview generalizations. The authors do not suggest that Kant, by his production of gnoseological problems, encouraged the Russian writer to borrow his basic ideas and arguments from the German philosopher. The process of interaction between these two geniuses seems to them to be more complex and winding. Therefore, the authors emphasize the way in which Kant formulated those higher ideas of mind, referred to by him as transcendental, which for the Dostoevsky thinker, regardless of anyone, proved to be a fundamental problem. An attempt is undertaken to analyze this process, to present the observations made during the study, and to formulate possible convergences. The authors conclude that in the process under study, I. Kant acts as a symbol of morality, coming from a theoretical mind, from intelligence. In a kind of duel Dostoevsky is postulated as a symbol of mind, closely connected with mental depths of a person, with his "hot heart," a writing term having a wide semantic spectrum.
Features of topics and structure of the autobiographical story "Far Banks of the River of Life" by M. Beksultanov
The paper examines the structure and topics of the autobiographical work of the Chechen writer M. Beksultanov "Far Banks of the River of Life" and the sources of the memoir issues in the artistic and journalistic prose of the writer. The author reveals the place of the work creation in the chronotope of events of the Chechnya recent history at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. An analysis is made of integration of deep and complex in its concentration documentary-artistic material and its lyric-dramatic emotional coverage. The author analyzes the characteristics of a holistic model of the world in the process of its division into a number of components and stages defined through the prism of personal fate and perception of the autobiographical hero. They denote that system of life factors and coordinates, which have had the greatest influence on the formation of his personality as a person, and the writer. Also, the author analyzed the peculiarities of this division, based on the principles of ratio, on the one hand, signs of storytelling, "artistic nature", and on the other - signs of essayistics and publicistics. The story explores two main alternately existing author's views: in one case synchronous with respect to the time that is reproduced in it, in another case synchronous with respect to the time of writing. Conclusions are drawn on the depth and brightness of the topics, structure and poetry of this work.
Lyamova B.Kh., Kuizheva Z.R.
The role of Adyghe journalism of 1920s to 1930s in the formation of national children 's literature
The paper analyzes the role of the Adyghe periodical press of the 1920s to 1930s in the formation of the Adyghe children's literature. The authors deal with the main trends in the development of magazine printing and journalism of this period in native and Russian languages, peculiarities of the problems, and genre nature of the materials of the first periodicals of Adyghea. The study is carried out based on the specifics and relevance of the tasks of the analyzed period related to the creation of the Adyghe national writing and graphics, the emergence and development of professional science, literature and art, changes in the social and cultural life of the region and society as a whole. The appearance of the first works about children and for children of poets Kirimize Zhane and Murat Paranuk in the late 1930s is noted. The data obtained within the framework of this study on the formation of regional and republican literary and artistic journals for adults and children of the post-war and current periods contribute to the identification of the main features of their content and structure, and trends of development. The results of this work have theoretical and practical significance related to the relevance of further development of basic concepts of history and prospects of periodic printing and children's literature of Adyghea. The obtained findings can be applied in the study and teaching to the history of national journalism and children's literature.
Author and reader in an essayized biographical sketch: Strategies for understanding and interpreting
The linguo-cognitive specificity of text and discourse essayization is analyzed. It is concluded that the author's essayistic experience is the main source of meaning in the discourse, and the Reader is the main subject of the text, which the Author's thought is directed to. An essayized biographical sketch is a kind of “hybrid” in both genre-stylistic and communicative relations. Modern biographical sketches, placed in journals, seek to show the image of a person whose life story can be perceived by the Reader as sensational. The scientific problematization of the research is emphasized by background knowledge about the dynamic nature of genre structures, forming a certain system of idealizations related to the process of “erosion” of genres, the possible transformation of their rhetorical and stylistic identity. The central question of the problem is raised in such a way that the associativity and analyticity of the narrative makes it possible to speak of its essayization, both at the level of general phenomenology and taking into account its structural organization. The aim of the work is to identify the features of the interaction of the author and the reader in an essayed biographical sketch. The purpose of the study required the following objectives: (1) to determine the genre and stylistic features of an essayized biographical sketch; 2) to identify the narrative and linguodiscursive specifics of genre; 3) to analyze strategies for understanding and interpreting the essayization of the formed discourse, using an example of biographical sketches about artists in the magazine “Caravan of Stories”. Using the methods of narrative and linguodiscursive analysis in the work, the structures of biographical essayed texts containing individual features of narrative essayization are analyzed. The theoretical significance of the research lies in the fact that essaying at the present stage is becoming an active cross-genre process and an actual linguistic phenomenon that characterize the features of the formation of an essayized linguistic personality. The practical significance of the work is characterized by the fact that the obtained data contribute to the determination that essayization in the system of the semiotic whole exists as a linguistic phenomenon that reveals the creative abilities of a personality. It is concluded that the essayist experience of the author is the main source of meaning in the biographical discourse, and the reader is the main subject of the text, to which the author’s thought is directed.
Panesh U.M., Mamiy R.G.
The lyrical prose of Hazret Ashinov in the context of ideological and artistic searches of the national literature of the 1960s and 1970s
The study deals with the formation of the lyrical prose of Hazret Ashinov in the context of the domestic literature of the 1960s and 1970s. The authors analyze the peculiarities of the topics, the story system, genre forms of the works "Two Bands", “Water Nut”, "Horseman Crosses the Violent River," etc. Conclusions are formulated on that the lyrical line in the writer's prose is strengthened, moving towards a variety of artistic techniques, updating genre modifications. Cultural-historical and relatively-typological methods used for analysis make it possible to suggest that the creativity of Hazret Ashinov reflected the typological peculiarities of the development of both general Adyghe and national literature of the 1960s and 1970s. The work contributes to the solution of theoretical problems of formation of lyrical prose genres. The results of the analysis can be used in the study of literature history, in the development of textbooks and manuals.
Hero and his space in the prose of the Adyghe writer Nalbiy Kuek
The paper examines the mythopoetic chronotopes and an image system in the prose of N.Kuek. The nature of the heroes' connection to their personal space is explored. To identify the peculiarities of their interaction, the specificity of the mythopoetic chronotope in the narrative is analyzed, and the influence of the mythopoetic model of the world in the world modeling of the writer's works is determined. It is concluded that the relationship and mutual conditions of these categories are important for achieving the meaningful and structural integrity of the work. The use of comparative-typological and historical-literary methods determines the theoretical significance of research related to the systemic analysis of the paradigm of neomythologism in modern domestic literature. Practical significance lies in the possibility of being used in classes in North Caucasus literature at the university.
Features of documentary and artistic content of Umalat Laudaev's book "Chechen Tribe"
The article considers the peculiarities of the documentary and artistic content of Umalat Laudaev 's book "Chechen Tribe". The main goal of this article is to analyze the combination of the reflection of scientific worldview and signs of artistic prose, to assess the degree of study of this issue in the scientific literature of the interdisciplinary level, and to highlight the main multi-component issues of the work, its information-encyclopedic and simultaneously figurative-essayistic nature. The article notes that the documentary-scientific content of the book "Chechen Tribe" does not contradict the presence of lyricism as a manifestation of individual human feeling and artistic epic. Attention is drawn to the function of the author-narrative, the peculiarities of his objective and subjective assessment, the presence of an expressed author 's position, manifested, in particular, in the emotionally-expressive nature of individual fragments of the narrative. A conclusion is made about the harmonic combination in Umalat Laudaev's prose of elements of scientific-documentary, essayistic and artistic content.
Khitarova T.A., Khitarova E.G.
Spatial-worldview concepts of the top and bottom in the novel “Number 11” by Jonathan Coe
This study is devoted to moral-philosophical aspects in Jonathan Coe’s novel “Number 11”. The aim is to investigate the top and bottom spatial concepts, and archetype patterns of horizontal and vertical intensions in the writer’s novel. The relevance is tightly connected with the subject of investigation: moral aspects in British up-to-date prose, their stability and possible transformation. The scientific reason of the choice is as follows: Jonathan Coe is a member of Royal literary society (Great Britain), awarded with remarkable prizes, and his books are translated into many foreign languages. These determinants increase research interest in his work, and set the direction of scientific search. Novelty and scientific significance are defined by the text analyses of the British novel from the moral and ethical standards. The necessity of usage of specific methods of research is detected and proved: descriptive, structural-typical for common aspects research on typological component: comparison-contrastive for essence revealing of different parts by juxtaposition. In the article conclusions and connections are proposed: the capacity of top and bottom concepts are limited but moreover they keep their nature; tendencies of British literature possible development without categorical estimation of reality are analyzed. Practical significance lies in the possibility for students, lecturers and scientific researchers to work with this information.
Mythological concept of water in poetry of S. Esenin and Karachay authors
For the first time, an attempt is undertaken to examine the use of the basic concept of water in the work of the Russian poet and Karachay authors. The purpose is to present the mythopoetics of designated poets. The data of the study was taken from the texts of the analyzed authors. The work is based on a comparative study of literature, correspondence of language and national culture in their interaction. The author proves that the concept of water is an element of mythopoetics and constitutes a sphere of concepts of different cultures. The study reveals that water images in Karachay poetry carry folklore elements, story motives filled with national specificity, and this concept is the leading for analyzed poets. The theoretical significance of the obtained results lies in that such an approach can be promising for understanding poetry of S.Esenin and national lyrics, and for the discovery of new knowledge in the study of mythopoetics.
Abazov A.Ch., Klychev A.V.
On the discovery of the original manuscripts of the Basic Rules of the Kabardian and Adyghean Grammars by Shora Nogmov
The paper is devoted to the study of the handwritten heritage of the Adyghe Enlightener Shora Nogmov. Today we can submit to the scholars of the world the originals of the first grammars of the Adyghean and Kabardian languages. These grammars are of undoubted interest, since they actually are the first significant evidence of the Adyghe and Kabardian languages. This is the only way to know what these closely related languages were like in the mid-30s of the 19th century.
Until now, the well-known Philological Works of Shora Nogmov, prepared for publication by G.F. Turchaninov contain the materials of the Tbilisi manuscript, which seems to be not the final version of Nogmov's grammars, like the Petersburg one. The Tbilisi manuscript was presented in them with considerable mistakes. The involvement of the identified originals of Nogmov’s manuscripts in the scientific circulation makes it possible to compare the existing versions and take a fresh look at the history of the creation of the first grammars of the Adyg languages.
This work is intended to attract the attention of the Caucasus historians to the finding. It is of undoubted interest as it opens up new prospects for scholars who study the language, history and culture of the Adyghes (Circassians).
Buyanova L.Yu., Yang Suti
Construction terminology as an integrative linguocognitive construct
The paper describes the characteristics of the construction terminology from the standpoint of cognitive and categorical approaches. It is noted that the construction terminology in terms of the composition of lexical and terminological material is one of the most ancient. The purpose of the work is to show that the construction terminology in Chinese and Russian is an integrative semiotic-epistemological field, structured into conceptual and categorical blocks. The practical significance of the study lies in the possibility of extrapolating the results to other terminological areas, and in using language material in lexicographic practice.
The scientific significance of the work lies in the fact that for the first time the authors study and parameterize categorical semiotic blocks based on the material of the construction terminology, reflecting the main stages, phases, phenomena and construction results. The definition of a construction term is given, the most important implicit parameter of which is sociolinguistics. The research methodology is based on a comparative analysis of the term fund of the Russian and Chinese languages, cognitive analysis, descriptive method, terminological definition method, and methodology of systematization and classification. The study resulted in establishing 13 thematic sections of construction and building production proves that the construction terminological space contains the scope of fixing construction terms and the scope of functioning of construction terms. The nomination-derivational processes of building semiosis have certain features. Thus, a nomination-derivative act is a cognitive act, fixing the results of cognitive understanding of the world in the form of a linguistic sign. The obtained theoretical conclusions represent a definite contribution to modern cognitive terminology and determine the further evolution of such an innovative direction as cognitive derivatology.
Image of the Orient in travel texts of Russian mass media
For the purpose of stylistic and linguoculturological analysis, we investigate the image of the Orient in the travel texts of the Russian mass media: tourist advertising, journalism and blog communication. The purpose of this work is to study the image of the Orient in travel texts produced in a new infocommunicative environment. Travel texts occupy a large place in the global media space, influencing the processes of formation of a new version of literary language. The use of intentional and contextual methods has established that in advertising texts, the image of the Orient is of a simplified standardized character, and usually it is explicated through abstractive concepts that have been disseminated. In the texts of journalists and travel bloggers, the image of the Orient receives a more specific, multifaceted character, transmitting the individual-author perception of national culture and life with the help of vocabulary, conveying cultural code. Research reveals that the text of journalists and bloggers is a special type of infotainment, affecting not only the feelings, but also the intellectual sphere of the addressee. The practical significance of the study lies in the possibility of using its results to develop topical directions of linguistics at the beginning of the 21st century: medialinguistics, mediastylistics and linguoculturology.
Nechay Yu.P., Poverennaya A.A.
The birth and formation of the fairy tale as an independent genre in German and Russian linguocultures
The object under investigation is German and Russian fairy tales. The paper deals with the peculiarities of German and Russian fairy tales, their heterogeneity in content and in form. The authors carry out linguistic analysis of their formation. They discuss specific national colouring, similarities and discrepancies of types and kinds of verbal descriptions, and universal human characteristics. The theoretical significance of the work lies in the authors’ attempt to study how, based on the example of fairy tailes, contemporary speakers of different ethnicities perceive the fragments of the linguistic view of the world, shaped in the previous periods. The practical significance of the work lies in the possibility to employ the comparative analysis of fairy tales characters within the different language material. The research concludes that the social environment of the tale creation and commonality of historical conditions of certain periods, under which the Germans and Russians lived, explain the similarities and differences of fabulous motifs.
Individual author’s comparisons in poetry works by Rasul Gamzatov
The paper deals with the lexico-semantic and linguoculturological features of the author’s comparisons in the poetry of Rasul Gamzatov. The urgency of the problem raised in this article is due to that the individual author’s comparisons in the poetry of Rasul Gamzatov did not become the subject of a special study. The author determines the national and cultural specificity of comparative images created by using the names of national cultural realities, author's anthropomorphic metaphors, figuratively associative comparisons of specific objects and abstractive concepts. The gender specificity of comparative images correlated with different culture codes is determined. It is concluded that the basis of the author’s comparisons of Rasul Gamzatov, which are fragments of the linguistic picture of the world, are the peculiarities of the image-associative and emotional-intellectual understanding of the surrounding world by the poet. The connection of comparisons with comparative images of Avar song folklore is noted. The gender specificity of the individual author’s comparisons of Rasul Gamzatov determines their lexical and semantic composition, national and cultural specifics, and specific features of the use of muscular or feminine culture codes. Such comparisons reflect the figurative associations of the poet, caused by the peculiarities of personal perception of the world and are updated by the corresponding linguistic means that form comparative images. Figuratively associative comparisons, as shown by linguistic analysis, are not unique in the poetry of Rasul Gamzatov, they constitute the specifics of his poetic idiostyle.
Sitimova S.S., Khuazheva Z.G.
On some peculiarities of adverbs in dialects of the Adyghe language
In order to identify structural-semantic and grammatical features of adverbs in dialects of the Adyghe language we examine adverbial signs of the adverb and its syntax functions, relationship of adverbs with nouns, adjectives, and pronouns; and some lexical and morphological features of adverbs. The relevance of this work is due to the presence in the Adyghe language of a set of unresolved issues related to the essence and grammatical status of the adverb. We use traditional linguistic methods of research: descriptive, comparative, structural-semantic, as well as such research techniques as observation and generalization. The identified grammatical features of the adverb of the Adyghe language make it possible to better understand the grammatical system of the Adyghe literary language and predict its further development, and the study of problems related to the grammatical nature of the adverbs and their functioning contributes to the general theory of morphology of the Adyg languages. The obtained results can be applied in the Adyghe language classes.
The value of the Hattian Language for the history of the Adyghe Languages
The article deals with the problem of the relationship of the Hattians and the Abkhaz-Adyghe ethnos. The denial a priori of the close connections between Adyghes, Abkhazians and Abazins with Hattians by some scholars is refuted by both linguistic and historical data. The toponymy of Abkhazia and Adyghea, proper names, idioms and sayings, a significant layer of genetically common components of the basic vocabulary preserved in the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages, as well as folklore data, in particular, the description in the old Adyghe song of the battle of the Hattians with the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses at Kadeshe confirm culture-language links of Hattians, Adyghes Abkhazians and Abazins, their belonging to the same ethno-linguistic group. Confirmation of the genetic connections of the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages with the Hattian is essential for the history of both the Adyghe and Abkhaz languages, which are newly written, and the study of the ways of their historical development presents considerable difficulties. Comparison of the Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyghe lexemes makes it possible to reveal the changes that occurred in the phonetic and lexical systems of the compared languages.
Tov N.A., Kubashicheva S.K.
The concept of "sleep" in world perception of Circassians
The paper deals with the linguocultural concept expressed by the word nkykhane "sleep”,"dream" in Adyghe language space. A large number of collocations and proverbs of the Adyghe and English languages containing this lexeme are detected by the continuous sampling method. The scientific interest is that it is reflected in Adyghe culture through the prism of the mythological consciousness of the people. Under conditions of universal internetization, contact between languages and cultures is increased many times. Therefore, knowledge of the national specificity of another culture helps to improve understanding among peoples. The fact that connotations are available in folklore and modern oral speech is established through comparative analysis of extensive field material. The possibility of using research materials in studying folklore texts in the Adyghe, Russian and English languages reflect their theoretical and practical importance.
Khazratkulov A.P., Akhidzhakova M.P.
The main constituents of economic discourse: pragmatic status and functions
The paper discusses pragmatic status and functions of the main constituents of economic discourse. The complex structure of the linguocognitive phenomenon studied determines its status trend. The constituents of the structure of economic discourse are the intentional base which determines the functions of economic discourse, as well as the collective cognitive space, manifesting a conceptual picture of the world, and basic concepts and priority values characteristic of a particular professional community. The constituents of economic discourse also include its subject and linguistic component as an empirical basis of this kind of institutional discourse in its linguocognitive and linguistic plans proper. The data obtained from the study of economic discourse, its functions and pragmatics can clarify the specifics of the structure and dynamics of the economic conceptual field.
Khachmafova Z.R., Naumenko I.V.
System-structural features of terms of the"Car" subject area (from materials of the English language)
The purpose of the study is to analyze the structural and word-forming properties of English terminology units forming the “Car” subject area. The object is the English professional and terminological vocabulary of the "Car” subject area. Subject matter is the process of term derivation in English automobile terminology. The material included English lexical units, updating the "Car” subject area, extracted by the continuous sampling method from various dictionaries, encyclopedias, special directories, as well as specialized American newspapers and magazines, and Internet sources related to automobile topics. Based on the methods of component and definition analysis, as well as the methods of derivational and functional analysis of automobile terms, the most productive derivational models of automobile terms are identified; and morphological and syntactic models of English automobile terms are described. The theoretical value of the study lies in learning the professional and terminological vocabulary of the automobile sphere in terms of establishing its value and role in the representation of the national language picture of the world.
Expansion of thematic base of "literary exoticisms" in modern Russian
This work deals with one of the strata of the borrowed lexicon – exoticisms – since due attention is not paid to a research of the factors defining development of this case of words during the modern period of language development. The research is devoted to definition of filling and structure of thematic paradigms of the exoticisms, which entered explanatory dictionaries of the last decade, and to the description of exolexemes, making up such paradigms, for the purpose of identification of dynamics of development of certain exothemes and the linguoculturological factors causing these processes. Use of methods of the linguistic analysis adequate to objectives - a method of continuous selection (during material collection), the appositive analysis, the component analysis, and a method of the scientific description – allowed us to bring together evidential base of the offered conclusions sufficient for justification and to describe features of this case of words. The author suggests that the factors causing development of the case of exotic lexicon in modern Russian should be elucidated. It is established that along with a tendency to a de-exoticization of the mastered lexicon, significant increase in number of "nonliterary exoticisms" in oral forms of the speech under the influence of mass media and "literary exoticisms" from the fiction texts, which need studying and systematization, is obvious.
Categorial-conceptual stratification of construction terminology: cognitive aspect
For the first time, based on the material of the construction terminology of the Chinese and Russian languages we study the basic categories, which shape the cognitive basis of terminological derivation and nomination; and determine the specifics of this terminology as open, dynamic and integrative, representing the results of cognitive activity of thinking and the language as a whole. The research methodology is based on a comparative analysis of the categorial apparatus of the terminology of the Russian and Chinese languages; we use the method of cognitive analysis; categorial classification; descriptive method; and methodology of systematization and conceptual stratification. As a result of the study, key categorial modules and concepts have been established that manifest the specifics of cognitive-categorial stratification of construction terminology. The purpose of the study is to establish all categorial conceptual signs of construction terms, and to argue for the conclusion on the actualization by special construction terminology of the implicitly expressed semantics of creation, civilizational development of society. Using the example of sociocultural stratification of terminology units, we have determined that social aspect is traced in each semiotic unit of the construction terminological continuum. The results obtained and our conclusions can be applied in practical work with terminology in lexicography, in compiling terminological dictionaries and reference books in Russian and Chinese; in the practice of teaching the basics of terminology and comparative terminography and make a definite contribution to the theory of cognitive terminology, terminography, and comparative terminology.
Gushansky S.M., Gorbunov A.V., Pereverzev V.A.
Applicability of quantum neural networks for solving pattern recognition and detection problems
The paper presents studies aimed at finding methods for applying quantum neural networks (QNN) for pattern recognition and pattern detection, providing a significant reduction in computation time while maintaining a given accuracy. The features of the modern approach to solving pattern recognition and detection problems based on neural networks and deep learning are considered. The principles of data processing in artificial neural networks are analyzed, and the algorithms used in them are presented. An example of pattern recognition and detection is used to highlight the disadvantages that can be solved with the involvement of quantum neural networks, and to report the possible benefits derived from the transfer of algorithms and processing principles of modern deep neural networks to the quantum computing platform. The feasibilities are analyzed and an assessment is made of the applicability of the use of QNN for problems of pattern recognition and detection and, as a result, of practical, physical implementation of QNN on simulators and later on real quantum devices. A method of teaching QNN for computer simulation of quantum principles of data processing is presented, which will allow studying and analyzing the functioning of the QNN created, as well as optimizing it taking into account the features of quantum computing simulation.
Simankov V.S., Buchatskaya V.V., Teploukhov S.V.
Calculation of the optimal ratio of confidence interval and confidence probability
This article proposes a methodology for calculating the optimal confidence interval and confidence probability for a random sample. For this, a method was used based on maximizing the average increment of information about the sample, which allows taking into account such an indicator as the uncertainty of the initial information. A numerical experiment was conducted in which the relationships between the optimal confidence probability and the confidence interval on the sample size, the distribution law of a random variable, and the type of uncertainty were investigated. Numerical values of the sample size are established, upon reaching which the transition is implemented from the deterministic type of uncertainty to the stochastic type, and then to the fuzzy.
Kashin Ya.M.,Knyazev A.S., Kopelevich L.E., Samorodov A.V., Kashin A.Ya.
Method of calculating the parameters of anchor winding and winding coefficients of first harmonic of the synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets for hybrid power complexes and its implementation
The paper presents the authors’ method of calculating the parameters of anchor winding and winding coefficients of first harmonic of the generator with excitation from constant magnets of conic construction. The calculation of the generator developed by the authors for work as a part of a hybrid power complex is performed.
Chastikova V.A., Vasilyev E.D., Babich D.V.
Methods of identification of persons in the video stream in conditions of limited data
The article describes the use of deep Siamese convolutional neural networks for solving problems of detecting and identifying people with a video stream in conditions of limited data in order to reduce the complexity of models and the number of errors at the learning stage. Biometric data of the person is converted into a compact size – embedding. To solve detection problems, a method is applied based on the calibration of evaluation vectors; in this area, the use of methods for normalization and L2 regulation with loss of triplets is shown. For input data, a batch normalization is performed; L2-regularization minimizes large weights while maintaining parameters that are not subject to retraining; in turn, the loss of triplets is used to minimize the Euclidean distances between embeddings. The use of these approaches allows achieving high accuracy rates with a rather non-standard perspectives and uneven illumi-nation of facial images.
Gorovenko L.A., Kovriga E.V.
Modeling of the parameters of cost minimization objective function for the manufacture of n-component alloys
The article substantiates the relevance of the application of linear optimization methods to the problems of manufacturing two-three-and multicomponent alloys. The formalized problem of optimization of cost of alloy production taking into account its chemical composition and cost of components is presented. The algorithm of graphical visualization of solution search is described. The results of testing the developed Configurator parameters of the objective function are given.
Samoylov A.N., Voloshin A.V., Kozlovsky A.V.
Algorithmic support of intelligent digital image processing system for applied photogrammetry tasks
Solving the problems of applied photogrammetry with the use of mobile technologies involves the availability of a photo-recording device and a computer system which performs processing and analysis of images that interact with each other through network technologies. A key factor in the construction of systems based on this approach is the inverse relationship between the quality of the photo-recording device and the computational complexity of image processing and analysis algorithms, which limits the mobility, flexibility, ease of operation and minimum cost of the measuring system. The existing software components of photogrammetric complexes are a bundle of preprocessing, pattern recognition and solution of counting problems in their different variations. Despite the presence of such a basic structure, software complexes are built heuristically, and the set and sequence of interaction of means are static. The article proposes algorithmic support of mobile-cloud system, which will minimize hardware requirements through the use of cloud services and technologies.
Gaytov B.K., Kashin Ya.M., Kopelevich L.E., Samorodov A.V., Kim V.A.
Development of a new type of energy-saving installation for oil refining
The article deals with the availability of electrical industrial oil refining complexes and possible promising directions for the creation of a new type of energy-saving installation for oil refining.
Chastikova V.A., Pseush A.G.
Modern approaches to enterprise management automation
Automated control systems are an integral part of the IT infrastructure of any enterprise. Currently, developers are using data mining systems. The work presents modern automated enterprise management systems, directions of development of these systems, as well as feasibility of their joint application.
Mikhalev A.G., Chepurova I.F., Gladysheva A.V., Yakovlevà L.À.
RETAIL MANAGEMENT OF GOODS POLICY: ANALYSIS OF DIRECTIONS
This article discusses the features of management and the formation of the product policy of the enterprise, describes its main directions and components. The retail system is widely developed at present, which entails the effective management of product policies and its main directions. The purpose of the study is to analyze the main areas of product policy management in the retail of Tander JSC of the Magnit retail chain, identifying competitive advantages and optimization points. Research objectives: to identify the main areas of product policy in retail; analyze the elements of the product policy of the retail network of Tander JSC of the Magnit retail chain and characterize the main advantages and promising points of development.
Popova E.V., Kochkarova P.A., Savinskaya D.N., Nedogonova T.A.
TREND-SEASONAL TIME SERIES: FEATURES OF IDENTIFICATION AND FORECASTING
Sales forecasting enables effective planning and is an integral part of the decision-making process. The article deals with short-term forecasting models that have demonstrated sufficiently high predictive accuracy in relation to trend-seasonal time series. Two time series of sales volumes are investigated and, taking into account the presence and nature of seasonality, additive or multiplicative forecasting models are applied in them, respectively. Graphically presents the analysis of sales dynamics, which allows to identify emerging trends of decline or growth, as well as the results of comparison of the obtained forecast estimates of the applied models and the initial data. The implementation of calculations using the MS Excel table processor is described. The technique of short-term forecasts is proposed, which combines the mathematical apparatus of trend-seasonal modeling and the functionality of built-in functions and graphical visualization tools MS Excel.
THE USE OF IMPLICIT INDICATORS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF QRM IN HIGH-TECH INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES
In the article, the author sets the task of identifying implicit factors of the risk management mechanism when introducing fast-reacting production at a high-tech industrial enterprise. Changes in the situation in the external and internal environments of the company can lead to an increase in implicit indicators, which requires argumentation in terms of enterprise management for further forecasting of development scenarios. The author concludes that this will improve the management of a high-tech industrial enterprise and improve the effectiveness of decisions and events. During this, the author's analysis of risk involvement was presented as one of the key implicit factors. The proposed author's model of risk-involvement management demonstrates a certain order of activity. The article also presents the results of monitoring the effectiveness of the studied implicit factor in managing the duration of the order at the enterprise.
Zemtsova A.V.,Melenchuk A.S.
INTELLECTUAL SERVICES IN DIGITAL ECONOMY: TRANSFORMATION OF FORM AND CONTENT
In modern conditions, an increasingly important role in economic development is played by the digital economy, the main production factors in which are information and knowledge, as well as means of providing access to them, while the role of the driver of this development increasingly belongs to such a fairly young segment as the intellectual services sector. The article deals with the main functions of intelligent services; the classification of intelligent information systems is presented. Special attention is paid to the technology of network expertise, in particular, a noosourcing approach to the provision of intellectual services is presented.
COMPLEX SYSTEM OF EFFECTIVE USE OF LABOR POTENTIAL
The article discusses an integrated system of efficient use of labor potential, which is a set of interrelated and interactive systems research of labor potential and covers the following elements: a General index of the labour potential of an enterprise (sub: diagnostics of the level of education of enterprise personnel, evaluation of possibilities to increase productivity of the personnel; assessment of the health staff); a system of audit indicators influencing the management system of labor potential of the enterprise; system of competence influence on the efficiency of labor potential use (subsystems: forecasting and planning; acquisition; use; development and retention of competencies); system of personnel motivation efficiency management (subsystems: personnel satisfaction management; labor activity management; motivation hierarchy management and personnel incentive management). Effective use of labor potential contributes to: effective use of labor resources, the development of competent, innovation-oriented employees who turn services into competitive advantages of the enterprise and ensure sustainable socio-economic development of the state as a whole. All this emphasizes the relevance and timeliness of a comprehensive study of ways to improve the effective use of labor potential.
Ivanov M.I., Medvedeva O.V.
ASSESSMENT OF THE CONDITION OF HUMAN CAPITAL AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL
Human capital is usually understood as an economic assessment of the accumulated knowledge, skills and abilities that a person possesses, which play an important role in increasing labor productivity and contribute to the development of new technological innovations. In the transition to a digital economy, human capital is becoming a major factor in innovative economic growth. In this regard, the task of choosing the optimal approaches to managing the development of the national economy and the formation of human capital of the country is set for economic science and business practice.
This article is devoted to the analysis of the most common approaches to the implementation of a comprehensive assessment of the degree of development of human capital at the national level.
Prokhorova V.V., Medvedeva O.V.
HEALTH CAPITAL AS THE FIRST FOUNDATION OF HUMAN CAPITAL
The article discusses the properties of the most important structural element of human capital – health capital, which is based on investing in a person in order to form, maintain and improve his health and performance. The key features of health capital are the impossibility of acquiring or fully restoring health in the short term, the presence of certain limit barriers above which it is not possible to increase the level of health, and the fact that health continues to be a form of human capital in the absence of its implementation in the process labor activity. At the state level, an important role is played by the assessment of health capital losses, for which it is necessary to have information on the level of morbidity, disability and mortality, as well as objectively assess the economic costs associated with these processes. The paper proposes to move from the implementation of a rather expensive concept of improving medical care to the population to the concept of monitoring, reproduction, preservation and strengthening of public health as an essential element of human capital.